EMERCOM of Russia
1. Unified State System for Emergency Situations - Prevention and Response Russian Emergency Situations System Organigram *
2. The Ministry, called to save*
3. Ministry of Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters*
4. Crisis Management Centre (CMC)*
5. Rescue troops*
6. Search and Rescue Service*
7. Central Airmobile Rescue Detachment (TSENTROSPAS)*
8. Canine service*
9. Civil protection academy*
10. Russian international training center for rescuers*
11. Technical safety and new technologies*
12. Aviation on Emercom of Russia's service*
13. Scientific researches in the field of civil protection*
14. Safety school*
15. Exhibitions and fairs*
16. EMERCOAM of Russia’s international activities*
THE TASKS OF THE SYSTEM:
- Your Excellency, Your Ministry’s record shows quite a lot of commendable deeds.
How can you possibly spell out the EMERCOM of Russia’s credo?
- We are following one simple guidance: the human’s life has the top priority, regardless of nationality, religion, beliefs and skin colour. Everyone has a legal right to be rescued, therefore・to get our assistance, and we are ready to provide it.
A fragment of an Interview, granted by Mr.S.Shoigu, Minister of Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM of Russia), to the Delovoy Mir”(“Business World”) newspaper.
Ministry of Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters(EMERCOM of Russia) was established on January 10, 1994, according to the President of Russia’s Ordnance, although EMERCOM of Russia used to celebrate its birthday on December 27, as it was the exact day in the year of 1990, when the Russian Corps of Rescuers had been created, with the purpose to provide swift and effective response in case of emergency situations occurrence.
In the period of six years of its existence, the Ministry completed a number of the operations, resulted with the human lives, huge natural and material resources spared. EMERCOM of Russia represents a federal body of executive power and, as such, is tasked with the following:
The Government’s strategy to decrease risks and to mitigate the
consequences of the emergency situations designed for the period up
to the year of 2012 exemplifies one of the principal directions in the
Russian Government’s policy, which is supposed to be implemented by
EMERCOM of Russia.
First Vice-Minister Yu.Vorobiev
EMERCOM of Russia’s CMC represents a main body for the day-to-day management of a Unified Emergency Prevention and Response State System (UEPRSS) and, as such, is tasked with the following:
1. Provision of firm and continuos management of the forces and assets allocated for emergency prevention and response.
2. Provision of necessary information for the system as a whole and for EMERCOM of Russia.
3. Coordination of all UEPRSS segments activities. CMC principal services are on stand-by duty round the clock. Apart of communications and hardware experts, duty service comprises chief duty officer and duty shift officers. Chief duty officer is to organize an immediate initial response on an emergency situation until eventual deployment of the emergency response temporary HQs.
Duty shift officers are responsible for the information’s collection, evaluation and processing automatically, as well as for supporting the emergency response temporary Hqs and meeting its informational requirements. This shift is capable of gathering information on several emergency situations occurred on federal or regional level, as well as of monitoring situation on the places of earlier disasters emergency response.
The duty shift processes and enters into unified information net of the Ministry the information about all emergency situations originated by all Russian Federation entities and by the relevant duty services of the federal ministries and agencies. This particular net is receiving an information out of the regions and is storing operational and reference information on the emergency situations which is used by the forecast services. Processed forecasts then are sent back to Crisis Management. Centre to represent a base for any future decisions taken by the leadership of the Ministry.
In general, the unified information space has been created which allows close interaction with the President’s Office, Russian Government and another sister-ministries and agencies.
Civil protection troops numbered now 23,000 of personnel, represent a backbone of the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations. Their tasks include the following:
・provision of relief, assistance and evacuation of the affected persons;
・population life support.
These troops are composed of the rescue brigades, mechanized civil protection regiments and battalions, special protection companies and detached helicopters squadrons. They are armed with the specialised equipment, such as engineering, medical, radiation, chemical and biological protection. Nowadays civil protection troops are equipped with the modem devices and emergency rescue tools to implement their missions in the emergency situations zones, as well as with the high-negotiating capabilities specialised vehicles.
In the peace time the civil protection troops are functioning within the framework of the Unified Emergency Situations Prevention and Responce State System. As for the war time, they are under control of the Civil Protection system. In any occasion ,their primary
task is to protect the country’s population and its territory while emergency situations.
The search and rescue services, built upon the base of different tourist' and Mountaineers' rescue services represent a first-line asset in the framework of the Ministry's emergency response services. Their main mission is to provide immediate and effective assistance to the people endangered with the emergency situations. In the course of the rescue works, the search and rescue services coordinate their actions with the regional headquarters for civil protection and emergency situations, along with the Interior Ministry and Health Ministry units and detachments. They are greatly involved as well into the education programmes for the population concerning the rules of behaviour in the open nature, first-aid provision in case of the accidents.
Nowadays Russia counts 58 search and rescue services, deployed in the most vulnerable natural or human created disasters regions.
--"The people of this courageous profession are quite frequently in the dead centre of the most dangerous trials as earthquakes, floods, fires and alike. They do deserve our common gratitude and appreciation for their selflessness, intrepidity and high motivation."
("Rossiyskaya gazeta" newspaper)--
EMERCOM of Russia Rescue service’s pride and elite is represented by the Central Airmobile Rescue Detachment, created back in 1992. It lists 310 of personnel, who are the top professionals and consider their lives unworthy without saving peoples.
The principal services of “TSENTROSPAS” are the following: rescue, rescue works logistical support, air support, transport, communications and information, expeditional, airmobile hospital.
In conjunction with the different types of rescue operations implementation, the detachment is also capable of unique airdropping of the assorted loads, equipment and the modules of the airmobile hospital to the place of emergency situations occurrence.
The detachment is supplied with the highly diversified specialised equipment, life-supporting devices, means of affected persons delivery, search and rescue, all types of communications, including satellite ones, helicopters of Mi-8 and MBO-105 types, high-negotiating features vehicles.
TSENTROSPAS implements immediate search and rescue works within Russian Federation and abroad, delivers humanitarian supplies to the emergency situations zones, evacuates population out of the disaster and social unrest areas. The rescuers of the detachment, where eight among them are internationally certified, took part into 130 actions and operations in Russia and in the foreign countries.
Canine service is supposed to be the freshest one in the Ministry, although it is not possible today to imagine the rescue works without the specially trained dogs. This service is responsible for the training of the rescue dogs・conductors, as well as the drilling and training of the service dogs which are widely used to search for the victims in case of earthquakes, explosions, buildings destruction and avalanches. There is a sufficient number of working dogs of the different breed, like German shepherds, Russian spaniels, Newfoundlanders, Labradores, American Staffordshire terriers.
This service may recall quite a number of operations to save the human lives and to search for the victims, like earthquake in Neftegorsk, Kaspiysk, aircrash near Abakan, search for the survivors while avalanches in the Central Caucasus mountains.
Good relations are established with the sister-services of the foreign countries, which have quite an experience in the service dogs' employment for the rescue operations, to name but a few: Switzerland, Austria, France and the others.
The Civil Protection Academy, created in 1992, is the leading training-methodological and scientific center in the field of civil protection. The Academy is training the professionals on the state and municipal levels of management, civil protection engineers for emergency situations, engineers with the mathematical education.
Nowadays there are 2 Russian Academy of Science members, 2 members-correspondents, 10 doctors and 44 candidates among the teaching personnel of the Academy.
Concentrating mostly on the scientific researches, Academy’s teachers are studying, evaluating and processing national and international experience in the field of emergency situations prevention and response, elimination of consequences of natural disasters and accidents, population’s protection and life support, safety of the industrial facilities, economy’s mobilisation preparedness. The Academy is also responsible for the management of the regional training and methodology centers for civil protection and emergency situations.
Academy’s graduates are employed by the different ministries, federal and municipal executive bodies, they are teaching in the higher education facilities and serving in the Civil Protection Forces.
Since 1995, the Academy is training the foreign experts in civil protection in order to increase their professional skills in accordance with the programmes, adopted by the International Civil Defence Organization and UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs.
This Center was inaugurated in 1996 as an international facility of humanitarian nature. Representing a structural branch of the Civil Protection Academy, the Center is dealing with the training and professional skills improvement of the rescuers and emergency rescue services’ experts.
The Center is situated in the vicinity of Moscow, in the town of Noginsk. It is equipped with the modern training facilities, as well as a unique training range which enables to simulate the different types of emergency situations (devastation, debris of high story buildings, communal and power supply network wreckage, vehicles・accidents, fires etc.) in order to implement emergency rescue works drills.
The Center’s instructors are the high class professionals, profoundly experienced in the practical, scientific and training activities. The training methodology was prepared by EMERCOM of Russia’s experts on the basis of the international law. Approximately 70 % of the training time is allocated for the practical drills. and another 30 % - for the theoretical classes, including fire fighting, medical and psychological education.
The principal modus operandi of the Center is represented in Its openness which
makes it easily accessible and available for any countries and organizations.
Technical safety for the Ministry’s services is ensured by a Special Centre of the Ministry, created in 1995, which was tasked with unified technical policy provision primarily, in the field of information protection soft-ware, by means of computer virus-killing programmes creation and implementation. Secondly, the Centre was licensed with certification tests rights, and a special workshop was set up to ensure the highest degree of technical safety for the search, rescue and another operations equipment This work shop is supposed to test and to issue certificates on the equipment and tools which influence greatly by their quality the effectiveness of the Ministry’s rescue services activities.
Besides, the Centre implements unified technical approach to the navigation equipment for the rescue operations. A programme called Leader Info-Navigation System U is worked out which includes contemporary Russian and foreign technologies. Humanitarian supplies convoys safety is ensured by the specially equipped escort vehicles. Such vehicles, due to their satellite or the other means of communications, provided permanent duplex radioexchange with the humanitarian convoys while relief operations
in Chechnya, Georgia, former Yugoslavia, Rwanda.
Robotic equipment is coming to assist the Ministry’s rescuers as well. One of the best models in the range of the unmanned small aircrafts, for example, which is used for the search operations, is a guided unmanned vehicle called Pronya with the digital photo camera on board. Economical and user-friendly, it can fly over the territory on the distances up to 15 clicks. With its high precision snapshots, Pronya could be of great assistance while affected persons searching as a result of floods, avalanches and another emergency situations.
EMERCOM of Russia’s experience shows that nowadays it 15 not possible to implement practically any serious task connected with emergency situations response without aviation component. Aviation’s ability to deliver rescuers, equipment, medicine and different loads to the places of emergency situations occurrences almost in no time defines its role as a pillar, which the mobility and effectiveness of the Russian emergency service is rested upon.
To mention an example of the new aviation technologies・creation and functioning there is the utilisation of the heavy transport aircrafts of “IL76”type for the purpose of massive forest fires fighting. The State Aviation Enterprise of the Ministry is equipped with five of them, fitted with the special vapor dispensers (tanks) of 42 MT volume of water or fire extinguishing liquid. In the year of 1996, these aircrafts were fighting forest fires in the
region of Khabarovsk, as well as participated in the firefighting on the oil depot in the vicinity of Volgograd.
The aviation technologies・further development is connected primarily with new Russian aircrafts acquisition. Soon it is planned to equip the Ministry with a multipurpose aircraft of “BE-200”type, capable of taking 12 MT of water on board while gliding on the water surface which will increase greatly the effectiveness of the firefighting. New emergency rescue helicopter of “Ka-226A”type is already cooked up, fitted with two “Alisson” engines.
This helicopter is expected to be better than the foreign ones of the same type and to solve the problem of the rescue works implementation in the most complicated conditions like inside such megalopolises as Moscow and St-Petersburg.
The All-Russian Research and Scientific Institute for Civil Protection and Emergency Situations Problems is playing a leading role in scientific support and provision for EMERCOM of Russia’s activities, It was established in 1976 and since then has completed more than 1000 scientific research and construction testing works which were widely recognized in the scientific community. This is the only organization in Russia and CIS countries which is able to provide complete solution of the principal scientific problems such as:
The institute is keeping a renewed bank of information on the natural and human-created emergency situations on the Russian territory. Apart of this, it is dealing with the evaluation of the potential risks in the different regions (to ensure security of the investments there), and with the wide-scale researches in the field of nuclear materials stability and reactions in different environment.
On the base of this institute a new facility -Emergency Situations Monitoring and Forecasting Agency is now being created.
The institute cooperates in its researches with more than 100 scientific and construction testing Russian organizations. It implements now researches connected with the space monitoring of accidents and disasters in accordance with one of the programmes developed by the EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement
One of the principal directions of EMERCOM of Russia’s activities is the familiarisation of the population with the rules of behaviour in extreme situations. This task lays within the mainstream of the state measures system to protect the population and the territories against emergency situations.
Several years ago, a new training programme was introduced for the high-school
and professional education. It was called “Life-support safety basics・and aimed at the development of “human being self-protection・skills. Logically, this type of training proceeds with three following stages:
・definition of the threatening situation;・measures to avoid it;
・sequence of actions in case of personal involvement occurrence.
The similar programme has been included into the educational process of the higher education facilities, where the plan of training might be diversified according to the facility’s speciality. Great attention in this programme is concentrated on the prevention of emergency situations, considering the degree of the professional necessity of it for the different groups of the students. For example, the would-be engineers should be aware of the kind of the situations which might happen. in the chemically endangered facility and what should be done in order to prevent such occurrence.
EMERCOM of Russia is working in close contact with mass-media agencies. In accordance with the Ministry's request a special radio programme called “Survival school and a TV-programme named “TV-guard” have been produced and aired regularly. These programmes explain the correct behaviour of a person in the extreme situation. Besides, the Ministry supports printed publications aimed at increasing population’s awareness of the proper actions in emergency situations. Its own illustrated magazine, having wide experience and proved traditions, is serving the same purpose.
As experience shows, it is possible to increase the effectiveness of the emergency rescue works, to diminish the period of emergency response and, at last, to minimize human and material losses twice or even thrice capitalising on the improvement of the technical assets for the rescue units.
Thus, EMERCOM of Russia holds annually an international exhibition called Rescue means which becomes a presentation of the top-on-the-line samples for rescue equipment and tools produced in Russia and abroad. Exhibition booths vary a lot by their issues covered, such as:
・methods of natural and human-created disasters prevention and response;
・rescue works implementation technology;
・emergency rescue and fire fighting equipment and tools;
・personal and group protection gear;
・chemical, radiation and ecological monitoring and control means;
・special wear and equipment for the rescuers;
・prefabricated living facilities and tents;
・water purification systems;
・emergency ambulance and first-aid etc.
On such exhibitions expertise and evaluation commissions composed of EMERCOM of Russia’s experts are working to evaluate and to choose the best samples of production. The popularity and worthiness of Rescue means・exhibitions among the experts and producers is proved and confirmed by the fact that the first one, called in the year of 1994, was at tended by 95 participants, whereas the fourth one, which is planned to be held in Moscow on summer-97, is expected to gather more than 200 producers out of 20 countries.
A number of emergency situations and their consequences might influence the neighbouring countries, as well as the humanitarian disasters might endanger the whole regions. This situation requires finely tuned working cooperation on the contemporary international legal basis. The Ministry develops multifaceted cooperation with the relevant emergency services and humanitarian structures of United Nations, European Union, NATO and the most experienced and developed countries in the field of common professional interests. EMERCOM of Russia is closely working with the Russian Foreign Ministry in this direction. Several bilateral and multilateral interstate agreements have been prepared and are now in force with many countries - members of the Commonwealth of Independent States and another foreign states (Germany, Italy, France, Switzeriand, USA, Bulgaria etc.). New agreements on cooperation with such countries like Ukraine, Spain, Japan, China, Norway and Baltic states are in the process of preparation.
In 1996, a Memorandum was signed in Moscow within the framework of Gor-Chemomyrdin Commission between the governments of the Russian Federation and the United States of America on cooperation in the field of human-created emergency situations prevention and disaster mitigation and response, which represented a new step on the road of cooperation between two countries.
Same year, Mr.S.Shoigu, the Ministerof Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM of Russia) and Mr.X.Solana, NATO’s Secretary-General, have signed a Memorandum of Understanding in the field of civil emergency planning.
EMERCOM of Russia cooperates quite closely with the relevant international organizations, which coordinate different nations・efforts in the international rescue and humanitarian activities, as well as training of national personnel for these purposes. They list UN Depertment of Humanitarian Affairs (UN DHA), UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), International Civil Defence Organization (ICDO). MERCOM of Russia perticipates within the described range of international cooperation in the implementation of the World-wide long-term programmes and projects, such as Military and Civil Defence Assets for Emergency Response, World Food Programme” “Chemobyl” “World Aid, and the regional ones, for example, in Rwanda and former Yugoslavia, to name but a few.
In 1995, the Russian National Corps for Emergency Humanitarian Response (RNCEHR) was established by the Russian Government Resolution. This Corps is able to work independently in any region of the world complying fully with UN standards. EMERCOM Agency has became the managing and coordinating focal point of the Corps. Its main tasks include the following:
- the establishment and development of the working relations with UN and another international humanitarian organizations; provision of the contemporary advanced machinery and equipment for the Corps;
- coordination of the airmobile task forces actions in case of emergency situations occurrences abroad;
- presentation and development of Russian initiatives on the humanitarian actions implementation;
- attraction of the investments, necessary to support Russian integration to the world economy’s system within EMERCOM of Russia’s responsibilities.
According to the contract, signed with UNHCR, EMERCOM of Russia’s humanitarian trucking convoys have been delivering humanitarian relief to the encircled
anclaves in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to the refugees and internally displaced persons in the former Yugoslavia for three years. The similar convoys worked on the mountain roads of Georgia, frequently delivering fuel and lubricants for the Russian Orthodox religious community of Dukhobores (“Spirit Fighters"). Swift and efficient actions of EMERCOM of Russia's aviation and trucking convoys in Tanzania and Zaire spared thousands of human lives and laid the basis for the restoration of cooperation with the African countries.
In the year of 1997-1998, EMERCOM of Russia, together with the foreign scientists, is planning to continue the further realisation of the new airmobile technologies and another advanced researches in the field of rescue machinery and tools, seismology and space monitoring.