is situated in geographically between Asia and Australia continents, the
Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is located in the tectonic zone.
Geologically, it is composed of parts of three crucial plates (Eurasian
plate, Indian-Australian plate and Pacific Ocean floor). It is also
situated in the three regional mountain systems (Alpine Sunda, Circum
Pacific and Circum Australian).
seismic sources will raise earthquake, which can be generated by different
sources, namely subduction zone and active fault. The subduction lays in
the southwestern of Sumatra, south of Java, some part of Maluku and Papua.
The well-known active fault that generating damaging earthquake is The
Great Sumatra fault, Palu-Koro fault and Sorong fault.
volcanic areas occupied by more than 500 young volcanoes, which are
described as 128 active volcanoes. It is representing 15 % of the active
volcanoes in the world.
movement such as landslides and rock falls can occur on such condition as
steep slope, type of rock, fractured and highly intense weathered of rock
and bad land management.
western part of Indonesia is rather wet with medium to high of rain
intensity. It is potentially stricken by flood, which is caused by
overflows from shallow rivers whenever monsoon comes.
landslide can occur in the monsoon and this condition can affect the
formation of mud and stones flood.
usually occurs in the eastern Indonesia during the long-term of dry season
i.e. West and East Nusatenggara.
dry season, in some areas in Kalimantan and Sumatra, often stricken by
land and forest fire.
changing of meteorological condition might be affect wind blow or typhoon
in several areas.
|The nation of Indonesia is composed of multi ethnics, tribes and religions. This condition is vulnerable to occur the social conflicts.|
a. Past Major Disaster in Indonesia
Floods and landslides were predominantly Indonesia's natural disasters in 2002. The global climate changes and regional climate condition were most likely influenced on those natural disasters. The regional integrated climate monitoring by means of climate data and information exchange will be very useful.
Disasters occur in 2002 in Indonesia are floods (16 provinces), landslide (7 provinces), earthquake (3 provinces), volcano eruptions (3 provinces), storm (2 province), forest fire and haze (5 provinces), and other disasters like tsunami, transportation accident, chemical industry blow up, gas blow up, social unrest and bomb blasting.
The major and worst disaster in year 2002 was Bali's bomb blasting that occur at 12 October 2002 in Legian Tourism Area. It is caused 185 peoples died and 325 were injured.
The second is landslide combine with flash-flood in Pacet (hot water
recreation) in Mojokerto, East-Java. It caused 26 people died and 1 people was
Table 1. Disaster in Indonesia in 2002
|No||Type of Disaster||Number of Occurrence||Causalities|
|1||Bomb Blasting/Other Explosion||14||197||443||-|
|6||Floods & Landslides||12||23||9||-|
|@||T O T A L||141||410||8,448||135,307|
Sources: Department of Health, The Republic of Indonesia
b. Emergency Relief from Abroad Against Disaster
Under coordination and supervision from the Government, humanitarian
assistance from other countries, organizations under the UN, International NGO's
and privates from abroad are always give participation almost in all natural or
man made disaster as well as IDP's problems especially in the large scale
2. DISASTER COUNTERMEASURES
a. Law and Regulation
There are no specific laws or regulations for disaster management in Indonesia. Each type of disaster covered by arrangement of disaster countermeasures is in the sector laws, such as:
- Act No. 11 /1974 concerning Water Resources Management
- Act No. 6/1974 concerning Basic Arrangement on Social Welfare
- Act No. 4/1984 concerning Epidemics
- Act No. 5/1990 concerning Conservation of Biological Natural Resources and Its Ecosystems
- Act No. 23/1992 concerning Health
- Act No. 24/1992 concerning Spatial Planning
- Act No. 23/1997 concerning Environmental Management
- Act No. 41/1999 concerning Forestry
Presidential Decree arranges Establishment of National Coordinating Board for Disaster Management. The last arrangement is PD No. 3 / 2001 and No. 111 / 2001.
Government of the Republic of Indonesia has established a national coordinating board for disaster management since 1966, the so-called TKP2BA (1966), BAKORNAS PBA (1967), BAKORNAS PB (1980-2000), BAKORNAS PBP (2001-present).
BAKORNAS PBP is abbreviation of BADAN KOORDINASI NASIONAL PENANGGULANGAN BENCANA DAN PENANGANAN PENGUNGSI (National Coordinating Board for Disaster and Internal Displaced Persons Management), a non-structural organization (board) for disaster management operating under and responsible to the President.
The duties of BAKORNAS PBP are:
- To formulate and decide a national disaster management policies and strategies.
- To coordinate the implementation of disaster management activities before, during and post disaster.
- Rendering guidance and directive on related policies in the efforts to manage disaster (prevention, mitigation, response, rehabilitation and reconstruction).
The BAKORNAS PBP (based on Presidential Decree No. 111/2001) is composed of:
- Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia (chairman)
- Coordinating Minister for Peoples Welfare (vice chairman)
- Minister of Interior (member)
- Minister of Social Affairs (member)
- Minister of Health (member)
- Minister of Settlement and Infrastructures (member)
- Minister of Communications (member)
- Minister of Finance (member)
- Commander in chief of the Armed Forces (member)
- Head of National Police (member)
- Secretary of Vice President (secretary)
To support the duties of BAKORNAS PBP, it was established a Secretariat led by Secretary of BAKORNAS PBP.
Secretary of BAKORNAS PBP assisted by Vice Secretary and 4 (four) Deputies (Disaster Management, IDP's Management, Cooperation and People Participation, Administration).
The establishment of BAKORNAS followed by the establishment of similar
organizations to cope with disaster and IDP's in provincial as well as district
In provincial level, it is established SATKORLAK PBP (Coordination of Implementing Unit) consist of related services, chaired by the Governor.
To cope with disaster in the location, in the district / municipal level is
established SATLAK PBP (Implementing Unit), which is chaired by Bupati (Head of
District) / Mayor. The SATLAK compose of SATGAS (task forces) of the
institutions and services concerned such as health, SAR, army, police, social,
public works, Indonesian Red Cross (PMI) and NGO's. District units as front line
organization can mobilize all related agencies at their respective districts,
sub-districts and villages as well as involve local communities organizations.
The Structure of Disaster Management in Indonesia is as follow:
BAKORNAS PBP National level
SATKORLAK PBP Provincial level
SATLAK PBP District / Municipal level
c. Total Risk Disaster Management
Strategy and policy coordination in the aspects of prevention and mitigations activities handle by BAKORNAS PBP. The implementation of the activity, each ministry dealing with its task respectively.
During disaster in the aspects of rescue, emergency relief to be handle directly by SATLAK PBP in the district level, SATKORLAK PBP in the provincial level and BAKORNAS PBP in the national level respectively.
After disaster in the aspect of rehabilitation to be handle directly by
SATLAK PBP or SATKORLAK PBP with line ministry agencies under coordination State
Government. With coordination system as mention above all manuals, hazards map,
risk assessment are handle directly by each ministry in connection with their
3. DISASTER REDUCTION COOPERATION AMONG ASIAN COUNTRIES
The Government of the Republic Indonesia and Government of Malaysia signed MoU concerning Disaster Cooperation and Assistant in Kuala Lumpur December 11, 1997. Both parties agree to promote and maintain cooperation and may request for assistance upon any occurrences of any disaster in line with the spirit of mutual cooperation. A joint Committee on Disaster Cooperation and Assistance conducted a meeting in Jakarta in July, 1998 to discuss activities such as training, exchange of experts as well as technical and scientific information related any disaster.
On September 23, 1999, BAKORNAS PB and Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC)
signed MoU concerning Program for Understanding Extreme Climate Events. The
management experiences of 1997-1998 El Nino and 1998-1999 La Nina revealed that
direct application of global forecasting information at the local level passed
operational constrained due to uncertainties involved in relating them in a
micro geographical setting.
4. DISASTER EDUCATION
Improving knowledge about disaster in all aspects is required not only for government official but also for the community. The better understanding on disaster management will significantly reduce the impact of disasters.
Promotion of community awareness particularly those who live in disaster's prone areas have to be prioritized. Empowering communities is conducted by optimizing their own resources and by providing initial limited incentives to enable them to help themselves. Mapping of disaster prone areas in line with disaster information system are also important.
All member of BAKORNAS PBP can organize themselves training activities for staff, people participation and public awareness campaign.
BAKORNAS PBP have made a module to conduct a Basic Training in Disaster Management for SATKORLAK and SATLAK staff. It is also some training like Emergency Management and Contingency Planning (in cooperation with UNHCR).
Each department will continue with a special topic related to their tasks or duties, e.q. Department of Health will conduct a Disaster Management Training for Health Sector, etc.
Beside the Basic Training for Disaster Management, there will be an advance training such as Urban Disaster Management, Community Based Disaster Management etc.