5 Gathering of Information on Emergency Relief during Times of Disaster

5-1 Latest Information on Disasters

5-1-1 Background and Policy

The purpose of gathering and providing the latest information on ongoing disaster situations and required emergency relief is to provide a standard of judgement on emergency measures by affected countries and agencies concerned and emergency relief by countries and agencies concerned, NGOs and individuals.

5-1-2 Gathering Method and Accumulated Information

Upon receiving disaster information from the press or directly from affected countries, the Center starts gathering related information on the Internet. The information is sent to the Center by related sections of the affected countries as well as by international organizations.

The information gathered is accumulated for classification in the Center's database after new information is added. An "ADRC Disaster Report" is automatically generated for each disaster case, and then posted on our website. Shown Fig. 5-1-2-1 is an example of one of these reports.

5-1-3 Future Policy

At present, the Center gathers information and accumulates it in its database. Some information is contributed by our xoverseas counterparts as well as cooperative members. In future, we plan to promote autonomous information gathering, in which the informants themselves access and upgrade the database by taking advantage of the database upgrading facility via the network.

Because detection of the first report of a disaster depends on the voluntary efforts of information updating staff, detection of serious disasters may be delayed depending on how the disaster occurred and how much interest is shown by the press. To assure early detection of the first report, we will develop a network that monitors occurrence of disasters in cooperation with our counterparts and disaster research institutes in member/advisory countries.

Table 5-1-2-1 Items on the Disaster Case and Disaster Information Database

Database of disaster cases

Database of disaster information

ID number

ID number

Disaster code

ID number of the disaster

Order of occurrence

Disaster category

Country

Source (Japanese)

Disaster@category (Japanese)

Source (English)

Disaster category (English)

Summary of the article (Japanese)

Data of occurrence

Summary of the article (English)

Brief description of the disaster (Japanese)

Link to home pages (URLs)

Brief description of the disaster (English)

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Fig.5-1-2-1 Disaster Report

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5-2 Information on Emergency Relief

5-2-1 Background and Policy

When a disaster occurs in the Asian region on such a large scale that it is impossible for one country to take quick and effective measures by itself, neighboring countries and other countries offer a helping hand. To understand on what basis, when and how such relief was provided, and what effect it had provides useful data for determining what kind of information an affected country should provide and when, as well as for judging how other countries should respond to it in the most efficient manner.

It is therefore important to gather and share information that helps match the needs and seeds of both parties and information on evaluation of the relief provided.

As the first step toward this end, we have gathered as much related information as possible from existing databases, country reports and other data from member countries. At the same time, we put together information on how emergency relief is provided in Japan.

5-2-2 Accumulated Information on Emergency Relief

1) Information on Emergency Relief from 1995 onward

Information on how affected countries coped with disasters and relief from overseas countries is posted on the OCHA Situation Report and other locations on the Relief Web.

In fiscal 1998, we collected information on overseas emergency relief during major disasters from 1995 onward from the Relief Web and other sources on the Internet, country reports and reports announced at international symposia, and compiled a list of their locations.

(Excerpts can be found in Table 5-2-2-1. The entire text can be found at http://www.adrc.asia/annual98/h5-2-2-1eg.xls)

2) International Emergency Relief by Japan (Activities by the Japan Disaster Relief Team, JICA)

Japan is one of the largest relief providers in the world for major natural disasters. We therefore started by making a summary of international emergency relief provided by Japan, as a first step towards investigating the emergency relief situation in the Asian region.

Japan's emergency relief can be classified into "personnel relief," "material relief" and "financial relief." In fiscal 1997, we considered providing relief to 111 overseas disasters and sent relief to 27 cases.

The Japan Disaster Relief Team is responsible for personnel relief. Three different types of teams (rescue, medical and experts' teams) and troops of the Self-Defence Forces are dispatched. Depending on the scale of the disaster, up to 100 staff can be sent, but on average 10 staff members are dispatched for about three weeks.

Since 1990, a total of 36 teams have been dispatched overseas, half of which (18 teams) were dispatched to ADRC member/advisory countries.(Table 5-2-2-2)

Shown in Table 5-2-2-3are the Japan Disaster Relief Teams dispatched, the host countries' evaluation of and response to relief supplies and relief measures, and the relief activities by other countries in FY 1997.

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Table 5-2-2-1 Emergency Relief Information for Disasters from 1995 onward (Excerpts= Nepal Flood Aug.98₯₯₯one of hundreds)

(Entire Table¨ http://www.adrc.asia/annual98/h5-2-2-1eg.xls)

<Nepal Flood Aug.98>

Home Page

Source

Report

Date of Issue

Donor

Channel

The outline of contents

ReliefWeb

ECHO

ECHO: Humanitarian aid: news in brief

11-Jan-99

EU

Humanism-support project capital of 1,407,000euroes (the purification institution of water, medical support, a temporary shelter, clothes, a lifesaving bag, and a cooking tool offer these contents of support for about 20,000 households)

ReliefWeb

IFRC

Nepal : floods

18-Sep-98

DREF

CHF 50,000

ReliefWeb

IFRC

South Asia : Disasters

1-Sep-98

The Government is seeking domestic and international assistance to provide basic relief to the flood victims.

ReliefWeb

IFRC

South Asia : Disasters

1-Sep-98

IFRCS

DREF

CHF 50,000

ReliefWeb

IFRC

South Asia : Disasters

1-Sep-98

Netherlands RC

IFRC

A fund is offered

ReliefWeb

OCHA

OCHA Situation Report No. 1

12-Aug-98

The UN Disaster Management Team

Any assistance expected is [ possible ] ready.

ReliefWeb

OCHA

OCHA Situation Report No. 2

8-Sep-98

The UN Disaster Management Team

Any assistance expected is [ possible ] ready.

ReliefWeb

OCHA

OCHA Situation Report No. 2

8-Sep-98

German

In order to supply medicine, a water purifier, a hot-water-supply machine, a biscuit, and powder milk to the flood victim of southern part Nepal, support of 38,054USD is vowed.

ReliefWeb

OCHA

OCHA Situation Report No. 2

8-Sep-98

IFRCS

USD 34,000

ReliefWeb

UNDP

Poverty and poor preparation increase toll from natural disasters

20-Oct-98

UNDP

UNDP assists governments with the management of their responses to disasters by helping to recruit emergency personnel, providing transportation for emergency workers and supplies, providing communications equipment and by coordinating international aid.

ADRC

Nepal

Country Report(1998)

Japan

1000 blankets, 21 boxes of medical articles

ADRC

Nepal

Country Report(1998)

Republic of Korea

50,000 Nepal rupee

ADRC

Nepal

Country Report(1998)

CARE

It is 680,000 Nepal rupee to restoration of water for irrigation, waterworks, and a road.

ADRC

Nepal

Country Report(1998)

UMN

Food and the medical article for 50,000 Nepal rupee

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Table 5-2-2-2 Dispatch of the Japan Disaster Relief Team

(FY 1990 - FY 1998)

qADRC member countriesr

Year

Country

Category

Date

Casualties

Team

Category

Dispatch

decided

Duration

Size of team

1990

Philippines

Earthquake

July.16,`90

1,660

Rescue

7/17/90

7/18`7/26

26

@

@

Member

Total

Medical

7/17/90

7/17`7/24

8

Experts

7/27/90

7/29`8/7

8

3

teams

42

persons

6

teams

84

persons

\160,814,000

1991

@

Member

Total

Bangladesh

Cyclone

Apr.29,`91

120,000

Rescue

5/13/91

5/15`6/4

50

Philippines

Typhoon

Nov.5,`91

2,699

Medical

11/11/91

11/11`11/23

6

2

teams

56

persons

9

teams

125

persons

\471,777,000

1992

@

Member

Total

²έΔήΘΌ±

Earthquake

Tsunami

Dec.12,`92

1,216

Experts

12/18/92

12/20`12/30

8

1

teams

8

persons

3

teams

29

persons

\80,860,000

1993

@

@

@

Member

Total

Nepal

Floods

July.29,`93

1,048

Medical

7/29/93

7/31`8/13

9

Experts

8/24/93

8/25`9/7

7

Malaysia

Collapsed building

Dec.11,`93

1

Rescue

12/13/93

12/13`12/20

24

3

teams

40

persons

3

teams

40

persons

\89,281,000

1994

Member

Total

Indonesia

Eruption

Nov.26,`94

58

Experts

11/26/94

11/25`12/13

5

1

teams

5

persons

1

teams

5

persons

\7,260,000

1995

@

Member

Total

Indonesia

Earthquake

Tsunami

Feb.27,`95

Experts

Feb.95

2/26`3/5

3

1

teams

3

persons

1

teams

3

persons

\8,911,000

1996

Member

Total

Bangladesh

Tornade

May 16,`96

525

Medical

5/16/96

5/17`5/30

16

1

teams

16

persons

2

teams

40

persons

\133,669,000

1997

Malaysia

Air pollution

Late June-

Experts

9/26/97

9/29`10/10

6

@

@

@

@

Member

Total

Indonesia

Forest Fires

Late June-

Experts1

9/26/97

9/29`10/10

6

Experts2

10/20/97

10/22`11/11

44

Singapore

Oil spills

Occt.15,f97

Experts

10/17/97

10/18`11/1

7

4

teams

63

persons

4

teams

63

persons

\358,420,000

1998

@

@

Member

Total

PNG

Tsunami

July 17,`98

1,540

Medical

7/21`8/3

11

Bangladesh

Floods

Mid July-

783

Experts

10/2`10/15

7

2

teams

18

persons

7

teams

295

persons

1990`1998 ADRC member/advisery countries total

18

teams

251

Persons

1990`1998@Global total

36

teams

684

persons

Source: Outline of International Emergency Relief

Project(JICA,Feb.'99), Front Lines of International Emergency Relief (International Cooperation Press)

Table 5-2-2-3 Emergency Relief Provided by Japan and other Countries and Evaluation of Host Countries

<ADRC member countries only (FY 1997)>

Country

Category

Date

Dispatch of

Experts

Supplies donated

Response by other countries (US$1,000)

Evaluation of host countries

China

Typhoon

Aug.18 `97

----

Tents for 100 - 20

Tents for 20 - 14

Tents for 8 - 13

----

Expressed sincere gratitude for rapid emergency relief.

\29,912,240

Myanmar

Floods

Late July -

----

Sleeping mats - 1,000

Blankets (normal) - 1,750

Flashlights - 500

Detergent - 280

Soap - 3,000

Towels - 1,800

\11,745,134

Australia (funds) - 40

UK (funds) - 130

Germany (supplies) 100

Netherlands (funds) - 50

Norway (supplies) - 20

India (supplies) - 30

Korea (supplies) - 30

USA (funds)- 30

Much gratitude for the quick emergency relief. Should promote friendly relations between the two countries.

\11,745,134

Indonesia

Forest fire

Late June -

----

Back-carried fire-fighting water bag - 300

Australia

(funds, dispatch of personnel) - 1,440

Canada

(funds, dispatch of personnel) - 870

----

\17,390,000

Malaysia

Air Pollution

Late June -

----

Back-carried fire-fighting water bag - 300

China (supplies) - 120

Germany (supplies, dispatch of personnel) - 380

----

\18,038,000

Indonesia

Forest Fire

Late June -

Expert teams - 6

Ministry of Foreign Affairs - 1

Fire Defense Agency - 2

Physicians -2

JICA - 1

\17,390,000

Korea (funds) - 100

Netherlands (funds) - 130

Norway(funds, dispatch of personnel, supplies) - 290

Russia(supplies, dispatch of personnel) - 1,020

Deep gratitude for dispatch of expert teams. Will incorporate survey findings in future plans.

Malaysia

Air pollution

Late June -

Expert team - 6

Ministry of Foreign Affairs -1

Experts on air pollution control - 2

Physicians - 2

JICA - 1

\21,893,010

Sweden (dispatch of personnel)

Thailand (supplies, dispatch of personnel) - 50

UK (funds) - 130

USA (funds, dispatch of personnel) - 30

Helped prepare English report that includes technical proposals on the environment and medical fields and made proposals

concerning future contingency plans to the Ministry of Scientific Technology and Environment

Indonesia

Forest fire

Late June -

----

Portable

fire-fighting pump sets - 50

Back-carried fire-fighting water bags - 300

Portable loudspeakers - 50

Wireless equipment - 50

----

----

\74,816,500

Indonesia

Forest fire

Late June -

Expert teams - 44

Ministry of Foreign Affairs - 2

Fire Defense Agency - 1

Metropolitan Fire Board - 19

Yokohama Municipal Fire Bureau -2

Nagoya Municipal Fire Bureau - 5

Osaka Municipal Fire Bureau - 3

Physicians/Nurses - 2

JICA - 5

All Nippon Airways Maintenance - 5

\224,888,676

------

President Suharto acknowledged the help.

Singapore

Oil spills

Oct.15.97

Expert teams - 7

Maritime Safety Agency - 1

3rd Regional Maritime Safety HQ - 4

JICA - 2

\94,504,610

----

MPA and others concerned highly appreciated efforts to recover floating oil (so thin that it is difficult to identify) every day as well as the recovery techniques used.

Viet Nam

Typhoon

Nov .2.97

----

Medical supplies -3

\6,040,529

@

Australia (funds) - 230

China (funds) - 20

France (funds) - 110

Netherlands (funds) - 5

Norway (funds) - 4

Gratitude for valuable support. Will make most of the supplies to respond to the goodwill shown by Japan.

\6,040,529

China

Earthquake

Jan 10.98

----

Tents for 20 - 15

Tents for 8 - 4

Sleeping mats - 600

Blankets (against cold) - 350

Water purifiers - 14

Portable generators - 30

Cord reels - 30

Flashlights - 300

Dry batteries - 900

Australia (funds) - 50

Denmark (funds) - 30

France (funds) - 170

Germany (funds) - 40

Norway (funds) - 40

Netherlands (funds) - 30

UK (funds) - 330

USA (funds) - 530

Deep gratitude for the kind help from Japan whenever a disaster occurs. Will pass relief supplies to the affected area and convey the goodwill of the people and Government of Japan to the victims.

\30,484,750

Source: International Emergency Relief No. 22 (JICA)

5-2-3 Future Policy

In fiscal 1998, we gathered information on what kind of emergency relief was provided by other countries and other entities for what kind of disasters, by referring to existing documents and past cases in Japan.

We also gathered information on how host countries evaluated Japanese emergency relief.

In the future, we will gather such after-the-fact information through cooperation from the countries and organizations concerned, in the hope of finding an optimal way of providing and asking for relief by examining what concrete effects each type of emergency relief had on the affected countries, if timing and contents of the relief was appropriate, and how and to where affected countries should have provided information to enable other countries to provide relief in a more effective manner.