Formal Name: Mongolia
Mongolia is landlocked between China and Russia, with a land area of 1,564,100 sq km. Western Mongolia is mountainous with Altai Mountains and Khangain Nuruu whose altitude are 4300 meters and 3500 meters, respectively. Southern part is covered with the Gobi Desert and the Mongol Plateau, whereas forests spread in the north, and prairie from the center to the east. Continental climate.
The capital is Ulaanbaatar. 95 percent of 2,635,200 population are the Mongolian, the rest being Kazakh, Chinese, and Russian.
Major disasters are drought, earthquakes, epidemics, famine, floods, forest fires, wind damage, snow damage (Dzud)
Dzud (Extremely cold weather) in 2000
In 2000, Mongolia experienced the coldest winter since 1968. The temperature sharply dropped with the lowest temperature recorded at minus 46 degrees centigrade in some areas. The depth of snowfall ranged from 30 centimetres to one meter. Due to the abnormal snowfalls, 1.4 million livestock died and 500,000 people in 13 provinces were affected. In the subsequent summer, hot and dry weather caused drought, from which 450,000 people suffered from food shortages.
Forest Fire in 1996
From 27 February to 3 June 1996 a total of 386 forest and steppe fires broke out in 115 places over Mongolia and total of 2.3 million ha of forest, 7.8 million ha of pasture land have been affected by these fires. More than 7000 livestock, 210 houses, 560 communication facilities and 576 facilities for livestock were devastated by the blaze, leaving many peoples homeless. Also 25 people died and 65 were seriously injured by these fires.
Dzud (Extremely cold weather) in 2002
A serious Dzud that took place between December 2002 and February 2003 killed 7 people and 210,671 livestock.
The Law on Disaster Protection was created in June 2003.
In the Mongolian Constitution Article 6-(4) stipulates that the State regulates the economy of the country with a view to ensure economic security of the nation, the development of all modes of production, and social development of the population. There are laws on civil defense, air pollution, use of water resource, hydro-meteorology and environmental monitoring.
NEMA (National Emergency Management Agency) is responsible for implementation of the State disaster protection policy and legislation, as well as for the professional organization of nation wide activities.
National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA)
Country Report 2010 (English Version, PDF file)
Country Report 2006 (Japanese Version, PDF file)
Country Report 2006 (English Version, PDF file)
Country Report 2002 (English Version)
Country Report 1999 (English Version)
Country Report 1999 (Japanese Version)
Country Report 1998 (English Version)