Annually on the territory of our republic occur a lot of disasters, prejudicial to economy of the country, sometimes with loss of lives. The great majority of disasters are connected with the intensification of geological and hydro-meteorological processes, such as earthquakes, earth falls, mudflows and floods, erosion processes and etc.
Tajikistan territory concerns to be one of most active seismic regions of Central Asia and world as well. Within Tajikistan the zone of contact of two largest mountain structures, Pamir and Tien Shan is located. There is an opinion, what exactly here occurs collisions of the Indian and Asian plates. Zones of intratelluric Pamir-Gindukushskih earthquakes are possible to be considered as the result of this collision. Extending up to depths 400 kilometers and distances a little some of thousand kilometers. Annually in this zone, which is taking place in immediate proximity from Tajikistan border, on Islam republic Afghanistan territory, occur 1500 earthquakes. Strongest of them are felt by measured 6-7 on the Richter scale on southwest Pamir and 4-5 measured in all territory of Central Asia. Such earthquakes occur, on the average, 1 time a year; and rather weak, but appreciable, some times in one year. Actually by force of the intratelluricness of these earthquakes the destructive consequences from them, are not so appreciably even in epicenter. The inhabited localities, Ishkashim, Shugnan and Rushan regions and GBAO suffer most from massive earthquakes.
In Tajikistan territory annually occur 600 earthquakes 2-3 measures on the Richter scale that makes 80 % from total number of all earthquakes of Central Asia.
Last century on territory of republic there were three catastrophic earthquakes, they are - Karatag earthquake in 1907, Sarez earthquake in 1911, Hait earthquake in 1948. Under fragments of clumps (Sarez earthquake landslide hamlet Usoi was completely destroyed with all inhabitants. Partitioned off by a landslip, Murgab River soon has flooded large hamlet - Sarez. In result was formed the Sarez lake, the question of which interests the experts from all ends of our planet. A landslip appeared in result of Hait earthquake, moving with huge speed has devastated a plenty villages, buried under itself 28 thousand human life.
Last destructive earthquakes of the XX century were Isfara earthquake in 1977, Djirgital earthquake in 1984, Kayrakum earthquake in 1985 and Hissar earthquake in 1989, as the consequence - large economic damage was put to the country and hundreds of human lives were lost. Large landslip appeared as the result of Hissar earthquake, became the reason of 274 deaths and 30 men were made homeless.
During 1998-2000 years, in territory of republic of earthquake by force up to 7 measures have taken place in Dangara (September 3, 1998), Hissar (March 27, 1999), Farhor (October 31, 2000) and Rogun (January 9, 2002). Though the intensity of earthquakes was not high, the destructions were significant. Were completely destroyed 372 private houses, and 2500 are partly damaged. Without any loss of life, fortunately.
The catastrophic earthquakes in Hait (Tajikistan) and Ashkhabad (Turkmenistan) were an incitement to the beginning of active researches of a circle of questions connected to a nature of earthquakes occurrence and an opportunity of their prediction.
One of the most dangerous hydro-meteorological phenomena by its consequences is excess rainfall. The average number of cases with strong rainfalls on republic territory is insignificant and halts between 0,1 and 6 days. But at the same time maximum amount of days with strong rainfall is necessary, mainly, for spring months, and in high-mountainous areas - for summer.
Mudflows are observed in foothill and mountain areas of Tajikistan at heights up to 2000 meters. The risk of mudflows exists on 84 % of the republic territory. Annually these phenomena destroy the irrigation structures, bridges, highways and inhabited localities, covers whole ground alluvial deposits.
The presence of abrupt slopes, running soil in combination to high seismological activity make landslips the widespread phenomenon in the country. The most active zones of earth fall activity are located at height from 700 up to 2000 meters above a sea level. In the country is registered about 50 thousand earth fall places, 1200 of which represent threat for the population of republic.
During the ten years' period 1991-2000 more than 90% of the population became victims of the dangerous natural phenomena, was lost in result of severe meteo and hydrological phenomena.
According to prognostic evaluation, nearest 10-20 years in such acts of nature as the floods and droughts, will become more frequent phenomena.
For the period 1996-2002 the economic damage put by a drought 2000-2001 years has made almost 50 % of total damage from all acts of nature. For the same period the material damage from mud flows and floods has made 33 %, and from earthquakes - 90 %. The significant material damage from acts of nature was observed in 1993, 1997 and 1998.
Only for 9 months of year 2003 the acts of nature put damage at rate of 35 000,000 of US dollars. 8418 apartment houses have suffered, 836 are destroyed completely.
As more than 90 % of territory of Tajikistan is covered with mountains, development and effective utilization of unfitted areas, population safety of cities and industrial objects from acts of nature is an extremely urgent task. The acts of nature are dangerous by their suddenness, however their consequences can be prevented or are considerably reduced at the beforehand-accepted measures. For this purpose it is necessary to associate the existing efforts in one uniform system. Presently the measures of prevention and liquidation of consequences of nature acts are not prepared because of bad organization and sometimes-bad management. Besides the especially branch interests complicate the interaction of regulatory bodies at liquidation of emergency situations, that has negative influence for realization of measures.
In realization of questions connected with protection of the population and territories from emergency situations of natural and technogen character, there is a state body, especially authorized on the decision concerning liquidation of consequences of emergency situations on behalf of the Ministry on emergency situations and civil defense of Republic of Tajikistan, to which is allotted a task of:
Forces and means directly subordinated to Ministry of emergency situations of Tajikistan had participated in liquidation, of disasters, in Ayni region, in area of Baypaz Hydroelectric power station (2002), in Pendjikent region area (2003).
Besides as part of international coalition on rendering the humanitarian help to the population of Afghanistan by the power of Ministry of emergency situations of Tajikistan, Russia and Kirgizia per 2001-2002 years delivered more than 16 thousand tons of the humanitarian help as the foodstuffs, clothes, tents.
More then 300 lories were used for this operation.
The cooperation is organized by the conclusion of the contracts and other international acts, creation of joint legal base on mutual or collective interest, work within the largest specialized international organizations.
The notification of the population and bodies of state authority on the dangerous phenomena is indissolubly connected to the system of Ministry of emergency situations monitoring. The republican Centre on disasters and civil defence management taking place in the Ministry of emergency situations and civil defense and is a link of reception and distribution of the information on disasters. The center has constant radio, telephone and telegraphic connection with all regions of Tajikistan and CIS countries and far foreign countries. Daily this Center receive the information from all regions of republic.
There are three basic modes of warning and liquidation system: daily activity, high readiness and extreme regime. All regional staffs of the Ministry of emergency situations and civil defense of Republic of Tajikistan have radio or telephone connection with the republican Centre and appropriate regional staffs. Unfortunately intra-regional and intra-farms connection now is almost paralyzed. Exception is Sogdiyski area, where such connection partially exists. The additional difficulties in notification and communication system annually arise because of limit submission of the electric power; therefore communication exists only some hours a day. Especially painfully it is felt in Karategin valley and separate areas GBAO.
All measures on preparation for nature acts will be carried out under the direction of Government of Republic of Tajikistan through state commissions on emergency situations, evacuation and steady functioning of objects of a national republic economy in extreme situations of peacetime. The chairmen of these commissions are Deputies of Premier - Minister of Republic of Tajikistan, and members are chiefs of the appropriate ministries and departments. All these organizations concern to emergency situations services. Emergency situation services (there are 14 of them) are formed by the special Governmental order in all regions (areas, cities, areas), ministries, departments and enterprises numbering the personnel more of 50 men. In Government of Republic of Tajikistan there is a department of ecology and emergency situations, coordinating all measure on questions concerning activity on disasters.
The chiefs of the ministries and departments simultaneously are the chiefs Civil defense staff, and one of their assistants is the chief of civil defense staff of objects. The general management of a Civil defense control system is carried out by the President of the country. The chief of Cevil defense staff of Republic of Tajikistan is Prime-Minister and his assistant is Minister of emergency situations and civil defense of Republic of Tajikistan. With the purpose of realization of a management of preparation to disaster in areas and cities, and also in the ministries, departments and enterprises, are created regular and not regular (depending on category and amount of the personnel) bodies of management (staffs).
Ministry carries out a direct disaster management and development of measures under the warning, prevention, reduction and liquidation of consequences of nature acts.
In case of occurrence of significant emergency situations, on a place of incident immediately arrive all governmental commissions and appropriate services on civil defense. The commissions on disaster, where the representatives of local authorities (areas, cities and areas), Ministry of emergency situations and civil defense (or representatives of its staffs on places) and other appropriate organizations enter, participate in a rating of damage and preparation of the appropriate documents in Government of Republic of Tajikistan. The financing of measures on liquidation of disasters consequences is carried out at the expense of means of the republican budget, at the expense of the budgets of administratively territorial formations and budgets of the ministries of departments, depending on a kind disaster.
Simultaneously, on a place of incident arrive the special groups of the rescuers of "Centrispas" Department, appropriate military formation of ministry (if necessary and military formation of the Ministry of defense of Republic of Tajikistan) and local nonmilitary formation of Civil defense staff arrive also.
The "Centrispas" service carries out emergency and urgent measures in conditions of technogen and natural disasters character on objects of manufacture, enterprises, establishments and territories with the purpose of rescue of the people, protection of material assets and territories, localization and liquidation of consequences emergency situation, realizing of other works, required special saving equipment and appropriate qualification.
It is necessary to note, that the members of saving groups of "Centrospas" Department have passed a complete rate of training and have skills of realization of saving operations on diving, fire-prevention, anti-radiation, chemical, airborne and other measures. So a level of preparation of the rescuer is rather high. Problem is in unsufficient manning of saving groups with individual special outfit and necessary equipment.
What tasks face Ministry of emergency situations and civil defense as the state body responsible for solving questions of the warning and liquidation of extreme situations? On my sight, they consist in the following:
The prime tasks, listed by me, will help us at early stages to reduce risk from emergency situations up to a minimum.
» Page Top
» Country Report Top