IV. Recent Major Disasters

1. Disaster Situation 2000

The rainy season started in May 2000 in the Northern part of the Lao PDR and increased the amount of water in the Mekong River considerably. Thus, the water of tributary rivers could not be absorbed by the Mekong. By mid-June, six provinces along the Mekong River had been flooded: Vientiane Municipality, Bolikamsay, Khamouane, Savannakhet, Champasak and Saravane. Flooding also occurred in other provinces such as Phongsaly, Vientiane and Attapue. Two typhoons, Kemie and Wukong, bringing heavy rains lead to a second flood during the same rainy season. The social and economic losses can be estimated that, 15 people were killed, 66,500 families or 398,000 people affected, 42 districts were impacted, 197 irrigation schemes and 42,000 hectares of agricultural crops affected. Also roads, schools and livestock were impacted. During the flood, transportation by road to some district was cut off. Many villages lived in isolation from others. A large number of people faced food and water shortages. In total lost from flood 2000 can be estimated at about 50 Mio USD. Comparing this flood with floods in previous years, the flow of water was stronger causing damage also to irrigation schemes and water pumps.









Record of Flood damaged in 2000
No  Province  Population Agriculture
Total Affected % People
killed
Planted
area (ha)
Flooded
area (ha)
Damage
area (ha)
%
1 Phongsaly 170,100 670 0.4   5,400 30 20 0
2 Vientiane 318,900   0.0   38,010 960 350 1
3 Vientiane Municipality 583,300 10,350 1.8   51,930 3,650 1,290 2
4 Bolikhamxay 182,000 19,400 10.7   25,280 3,710 250 1
5 Khammouane 303,200 125,360 41.3 4 48,230 23,640 14,000 29
6 Savannakhet 747,600 96,460 12.9   114,650 23,700 12,460 11
7 Salavanh 285,100 16,500 5.8   47,680 4,740 1,400 3
8 Champasack 558,000 117,940 21.1 7 83,190 22,730 12,060 14
9 Attapue 97,100 12,080 12.4 4 13,500 1,930 1,070 8
  Total 3,245,300 398,760 12.3 15 427,870 85,090 42,900 10



2. Flood 2001

Flooding of Mekong River and its tributaries are recurrent events and cause each in varying degrees damaged to agriculture productions, rural infrastructures and human settlements. Flood 2001, the even seemed the same with flood 2000 that caused from typhoon bringing heavy rains and increased the amount of water in the Mekong River and its tributaries. The flood 2001 caused damage to production areas of 42,223 hectares in total planting areas of 411,030 hectares and around 244,050 people of 42,612 families were affected in 9 provinces.






Report on Flood Damage in 2001
Item  Province   Affected Agriculture
District Village Family Population People
killed
Planting
area (ha)
Flooded
area (ha)
Damage
area (ha)
I Northern 8             31,800 390 240
1 Luangprabang No data No data No data No data    10,000 10 10
2 Xaiyaboly 8 No data No data No data    21,800 380 230
II Centre 34 1,021 24,612 138,572    294,000 59,290 30,193
3 Vientiane Municipality 8 No data 425 No data    52,000 8,540 5,080
4 Xiengkhouang No data No data No data No data    14,000 100 50
5 Vientiane 4 63 No data No data    40,000 2,210 1,100
6 Bolikhamxai 6 147 No data No data    25,000 9,390 8,370
7 Khammouane 9 495 18,833 103,042    48,000 21,820 14,440
8 Savannakhet 7 316 5,354 35,548    115,000 17,230 1,153
III Southern 8 442 18,000 105,478    85,230 12,700 11,790
9 Champasack 8 442 18,000 105,478    85,230 12,700 11,790
   Total 50 1,463 42,612 244,050    411,030 72,380 42,223



3. Flood 2002



The Lao PDR, similar to the other countries in the lower Mekong River Basin. Now either is experiencing floods as the monsoon sets in and the rains increase. This is due to a combination of factors including very heavy rains in southern China and northern Laos, tropical storms over the South China Sea. Vong Phong Typhoon which came from South China Sea, made of heavy rain at up stream reservoir of Mekong River in August 14th 2002 at Houaysai district, Bokeo province. The first peak of the floods was reached on 19/20 August 2002, when the water levels of the Mekong reached 12.6 meters in Vientiane - the highest point since the devastating floods of 1966 when the whole of urban Vientiane was flooded and the city was under water. The waters have started to recede and Vientiane residents are breathing a sigh of relief that the newly constructed embankment which protects the city centre was not breached along Mekong Plain, but breached along distributaries of Nam Ngeum. Even if the Lao capital has been spared, there are increasing signs of flooding in the north province of Bokeo, Luangnamtha (include flash flood and landslide), Oudomxai, Luangprabang, Xiengkhouang, Phongsali and in the central and south province of Vientiane Municipality, Vientiane (flood, flash flood and landslide), Bolikamsay (flood and flash flood), Khammouane, Savannakhet and Champasak and Attapue, traditionally the most flood prone parts of the country. The flood 2002 killed 3 people and 249,782 people, in 50,342 families of 1,142 villages were affected. 33,702 hectares of the 432,900 hectares planted to different crops were damaged.





Conclusion of Flood Damaged 2002
Item  Province  Affected Agriculture
District Village Family Population People
killed
Planting
area (ha)
Flooded
area (ha)
Damage
area (ha)
I Northern 18 200 4,297 24,371 1 48,100 2,551 1,670
1 Luangprabang 5 39 350 2,046   10,300 189 64
2 Phongsaly 4 68 2,280 12,405   6,000 1,599 962
3 Luangnamtha 1 16 447 2,974   10,500 275 157
4 Bokeo 6 40 273 1,409   10,500 378 377
5 Oudomxay 2 37 947 5,537 1 10,800 110 110
II Centre 34 522 30,684 140,374 2 288,000 40,119 24,151
6 Vientiane Municipality 9 95 4,132 21,065   52,000 8,018 5,493
7 Xiengkhouang 3 27 176 556   15,000 57 57
8 Vientiane 5 7 183 803   42,500 1,825 761
9 Bolikhamxai 5 93 5,666 28,028 2 21,000 7,133 5,644
10 Khammouane 4 180 8,550 43,589   46,500 11,300 7,040
11 Savannakhet 8 120 11,977 46,333   111,000 11,786 5,156
III Southern 10 420 15,361 85,037   96,800 15,128 7,881
12 Attapue 2 28 1,682 6,028   12,500 1,505 449
13 Champasack 8 392 13,679 79,009   84,300 13,623 7,432
  Total 62 1,142 50,342 249,782 3 432,900 57,598 33,702



4. Fire Disaster in Lao PDR

Fire disaster is one of major hazard that occurred in some of the major cities and caused widespread damaged due to deficient of fire fighting materials and machineries. From 2000 to 2002, fires occurred and caused damage to people properties more than 50 billions kip.









Statistic of Cost damages and Value Things affected by Fire
Nation Wide for the year 2000-2002
Items Provinces Casualty Total of Damaged
1 Vientiane Municipality   33,874,130,500
2 Phongsaly   15,000,000
3 Xiengkhouang   119,000,000
4 Luang Namtha   418,671,968
5 Oudomxay   130,340,000
6 Luangprabang   248,301,700
7 Xaiyabury   171,520,000
8 Vientiane Province   8,126,820,000
9 Bokeo   53,266,500
10 Khammuane   8552,719,400
11 Savannakhet   645,987,600
12 Champasak   919,330,000
13 Attapue   No data
14 Bolikhamxay   614,415,600
15 Huaphanh   11,445,000
16 Salavanh   450,165,000
17 Sekong   No data
18 Special Zone   No data
  Total 8 54,351,113,268



5. History of Disaster in Lao PDR from 1966 -1999

Year Type of Disaster Location Damage Cost (US$)
1966 Large flood Central 13,800,000
1967 Drought Central and Southern 5,200,000
1968 Flood Southern 2,830,000
1969 Flood Central 1,020,000
1970 Flood Central 30,000
1971 Large Flood Central 3,573,000
1972 Flood and Drought n/a 40,000
1973 Flood Central 3,700,000
1974 Flood Southern 180,000
1975 Drought n/a Not available
1976 Flash Flood n/a 9,000,000
1977 Severe Drought n/a 15,000,000
1978 Large Flood n/a 5,700,000
1979 Flood and Drought n/a 3,600,000
1980 Flood n/a 3,000,000
1981 Flood Central 682,000
1982 Drought Central Not available
1983 Drought n/a 50% below
normal production level
1984 Flood n/a 3,430,000
1985 Flash Flood Northern 1,000,000
1986 Flood and Drought n/a 2,000,000
1987 Drought Central and Northern 5,000,000
1988 Drought Southern Crop losses   4,000,000
Hydro-power  10,500,000
1989 Drought Southern 20,000,000
1990 Flood Central 100,000
1991 Flood and Drought Central 3,650,000
1992 Flood, forest fire and drought Central and Northern 302,151,200
1993 Flood and Drought Central and Southern 21,827,927
1994 Flood Central and Southern 21,152,400
1995 Large Flood Central and Southern 35,700,000
1996 Large flood, flash flood, and landslide Central, northern and southern 34,400,000
1997 Flood and drought Central, northern, south 15,632,000
1998 Flood and drought Central, northern, south 24,687,000
1999 Flood and drought Central, northern, south 6,218,000
Total 564,303,527



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