KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA

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CONTENTS

1. Introduction *

2. Country Information *

2.1. Location *

2.2. Climate, Temperature and Rainfall *

2.3. Annual flooding *

2.4. Population *

3. The major hazards in Cambodia (Natural Disaster) *

3.1. Floods *

3.2. Drought *

3.3. Forest fire *

3.4. Landslide *

3.5. Storms *

4. NCDM STRUCTURE *

4.1. The National Committee for Disaster Management *

4.2. Proposed Amendments to the Sub-Decree *

4.2.1. Structure of NCDM *

4.2.2. Terms of Reference of the Permanent Secretary *

4.2.3. Terms of Reference of the Secretariat *

4.2.4. Structure of the Secretariat *

4.2.5. Emergency Co-ordination Centre (ECC) *

4.2.6. Emergency Preparedness Programme (EPP) *

4.2.7. Finance and Administration Division (AFD) *

4.3. Terms of Reference Of NCDM Member Organisations *

4.3.1. Role *

4.3.2. Responsibility *

5. NCDM POLICY *

5.1. General Policy Elements *

5.2. NCDM Philosophy *

5.3. NCDM Goal *

5.4. NCDM Role *

5.5. NCDM Responsibility *

5.5.1. General Areas of Responsibility *

5.5.2. Specific Areas of Responsibility *

5.6. NCDM National Strategy *

5.7. NCDM Sub-national Strategy *

5.8. Benefits from a National Emergency Management Policy *

5.9. Declaration of Policy *

5.10. Special Policy Issues *

5.10.1. Declaration of a State of Emergency or Disaster *

5.10.2. Procedures and Criteria for Recommending a Declaration *

5.10.3. Policies and Procedures in Requesting, Allocating, Releasing and Monitoring of the Emergency Relief Fund *

5.10.4. Reporting Requirements for Release of Funds *

5.10.5. Policies and Procedures on Foreign Assistance/or Emergencies *

6. NCDM EXPERIENCES *

6.1. Receiving International Assistance *

6.1.3. Unclear Channels for Receiving International Assistance *

6.1.3. The Importance of Team Work *

6.1.3. The importance of good field assessment *

6.2. Utilization of International Assistance *

6.2.1. Upon Arrival of Assistance *

6.2.2. Distribution of Relief Supplies *

6.2.3. Unclean Roles and Responsibilities *

7. Conclusion *

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1. Introduction

Cambodia is one of fourteen countries in Asia considered by the UN-Department of Humanitarian Affairs to be the most prone to disasters. Cambodia has been frequently affected by two kinds of disasters: natural and man-made. The natural disasters mainly include floods and drought. The man-made disasters caused by wars and civil strife have been a major problem for much of the 20 years resulting in large number of refugees, internally displaced persons, orphans and poor families. Over six million mines lie buried in Cambodian soil threatening the lives of thousands of people, especially in rural areas.

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Since 1995 the Royal Government of Cambodia has founded a systematic coordinated institutional structure whose mission is to implement the governmentfs future strategy aiming at building the disaster management capacity throughout the progress step by step despite the lack of technical experience, material and finances. In 1996, the National Committee on Disaster Management, headed by both Prime Ministers as co-

presidents instructed its secretariat to conduct a damage survey and formulate an appeal for relief from national and international donors, and to meet the response to the immediate needs of victims.

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Outline of the Government organisation responsible for Disaster Management

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ECountry : Cambodia

EName of organisation : National Committee for Disaster Management

EContact information : Secretariat of NCDM

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EName of co-ordinating department : Secretariat of NCDM, Council of Ministers, Royal

Government of Cambodia

EAddress : # 3 road 55, Chatomuk sub-district, Daun Penh district,

Phnorn Penh

EPhones @@@@ : - (855)023 725 907

: - (855) 018 810 099

: - (855) 018 813 510

EFax- (855)018810 099 : (855) 023 363 465

EE-mail :

ECurrent Co-ordinating official : H.E Nhim Vanda, Permanent Secretary, NCDM

ENumber of staff : 30

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2. Country Information

2.1. Location

Cambodia is situated between the latitudes of 10 - 15 North and Longitudes of 108 - 120 East and covers an area of 181, 035.00 sq.km. It consists of 19 provinces, 4 municipalities, 172 districts. Bordered on the North and West by Thailand, North and East by Viet Nam. The South and West have around for 38 % of the Country land area of which 80 % is devoted to rice production but also includes upland crops/plantations, shrub and grasslands, flooded forests and urban and barren lands. Mountains forest accounts for 62% of land area and includes evergreen, deciduous, mixed and secondary forests and woodlands of scattered trees.

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2.2. Climate, Temperature and Rainfall

a) Climate Temperature Seasons

May ? November 27 ? 35 Rainy ( South - West monsoon)

November ? February 17 ? 27 Dry ( North - East monsoon)

February ? May 29 ? 38 Hot, almost no rain

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b) Rainfall

The average annual rainfall in mountainous areas in the East ranges from 2,000.00- 3,000.00 mm. The South - West coastal areas experiences around 4,000.00 mm of rain a year, whilst in the plan area, the average annual rainfall is only 1.400.00 - 1,600.00 mm. However, annual rainfalls fluctuate very much (monthly fluctuation is also high).

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2.3. Annual flooding

25 % of the plain area on average is flooded annually by the Mekong River and its tributaries and local downpours (rainfall-runoff is often blocked by the high water level in the Mekong River and Toniesap Great Lake).

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2.4. Population

The estimated population of Cambodia is about 10.7 million. Density of population is estimated to be 51 persons per sq.km. The sex imbalance is estimated at 52.2 % female and 47.8 % male. 7.7 % of the population lives in urban areas, 6.9 % live in main towns and 85.4 % in rural areas.

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3. The major hazards in Cambodia (Natural Disaster)

3.1. Floods

In Cambodia there are two main types of floods: flash flood and river flood they frequently occur during the rainy season (in South - East Asian monsoon). The country is rarely hit by coastal floods. The floods are mainly caused by deforestation, erosion of river banks causing the river to become shallower, lack of building and engineering codes, lack of irrigation systems and heavy domestic rainfall.

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3.2. Drought

The imbalance in the distribution of monsoon rainfall over recent year has resulted in drought condition in some parts of Cambodia. During the rainy season from May - November, a dry spell of 10 - 20 days can give rise to extensive drought and damage to paddy field. Some areas in Cambodia have been affected by prolonged drought from 1997 up to present Cambodian people would face food shortage and poverty if this disaster continued to exist

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3.3. Forest fire

This disaster is very rare in Cambodia. In 1997 there was a fire occurred in Kirirum mountain, but is was a small scale disaster which lasted for a few days. Frequently, Cambodia is affected by house fire, especially in the big cities.

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3.4. Landslide

In 1997 the flow of Mekong river has caused landslide in Kandal, Kampong Chain Prey Veng provinces and in Phnom Penh city. The current of water has carried along with it houses, fruit trees. Cambodian people living the river bank are facing destruction by landslide and they are not equipped with measures of prevention.

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3.5. Storms

Some provinces of Cambodia are also hit by storms and Typhoon. By the end of 1997, Linda Typhoon hit Pou lo wei island causing wreckage of 81 fishing boats and hundred of victims.

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4. NCDM STRUCTURE

4.1. The National Committee for Disaster Management

The Royal Government of Cambodia established the National Committee for Disaster Management, hereinafter referred to as NCDM or the Committee, by Sub-decree N‹35 dated 27 June, 1995. NCDM is composed of.

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Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Cambodia (PMO) Co-Presidents

Ministry of Interior (MINT) Co-Vice Presidents

Council of Ministers Office (CMO) Co-Members

Ministry of National Defence (MND) Co-Members

Ministry of Environment (MOE) Member

Ministry of Economy. and Finance (MEF) Member

Ministry of Social Welfare, Labour and Veterans (MSWLV) Member

Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MPWT) Member

Ministry of Agriculture, Foress and Fisheries (MAFF) Member

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Co-operation (MYAIC) Member

Ministry of Health (MOH) Member

Ministry of Planning (MOP) Member

Ministry of Information (MINF) Member

Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MEYS) Member

Ministry of Cults and Religious Affairs (MCRA) Member

Ministry of Rural Development(MRD) Member

Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy (MIME) Member

Cambodian Development Council (COD) Member

Secretary of State, Womenfs Affairs (SSWA) Member

Cambodian Red Cross (CRC) Member

Permanent Secretary NCDM (PS) Secretary

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The Committee, in discharging its functions, shall utilise the facilities of the Ministry of Youth Rehabilitation (MYR) in Phnom Penh, and the facilities of the Governor in Municipalities and Provinces.

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4.2. Proposed Amendments to the Sub-Decree

The following paragraphs propose amendments to the Sub-decree.

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4.2.1. Structure of NCDM

NCDM shall be restructured to consist of four elements:

  1. An Executive Committee(EXC) which shall be composed of Ministers and shall meet under the chair of the Co-Presidents twice each year and as necessary during a declared emergency;
  2. A Scientific and Technical Committee (STC) which shall be composed of technical experts from relevant agencies such as the Secretary of State, Civil Aviation, the coordinating Consortium of NGOS, the UN-DMT etc., which shall meet each month under the chair of the Permanent Secretary, NCDM and which shall have its own Permanent Secretary; in times of declare emergency or disaster, the Scientific and Technical Committee shall convene each day to advise and assist the Permanent Secretary in his duties;
  3. A Permanent Secretary (PS) who will co-ordinate and administer the work of NCDM
  4. A Secretariat (SEC) which will support the work of the Permanent Secretary and which will comprise of 5 permanent staff and 30 staff seconded by member agencies;

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4.2.2. Terms of Reference of the Permanent Secretary

a) Role of the Permanent Secretary

The Permanent Secretary:

  1. Is Secretary of the NCDM Executive Committee;
  2. Is Chairman of the NCDM Scientific and Technical Committee;
  3. Is Director of the NCDM Secretariat

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b) Responsibility of the Permanent Secretary

The Permanent Secretary, NCDM shall:

  1. Co-ordinate the activities and functions of the various agencies of the Royal Government as well as private institutions and civic organisations, so as to implement the policies determined by the Committee;
  2. Convene the Executive Committee twice each year and additionally as necessary, to establish, clarify or review policy issues on hazard analysis, disaster prevention, emergency management and post-emergency rehabilitation;
  3. Convene and preside over meetings of the Scientific and Technical Committee each month to effectively carry out the instructions of the Executive Committee and prescribe standard operating procedures based on policy guidance from the Executive Committee;
  4. Make recommendations to the Executive Committee, NCDM regarding declarations of emergency and disaster
  5. Issue regular Sitreps during an emergency, informing international agencies and the public of the current status of the situation and decisions that have been taken to address the problem;
  6. Hold regular meetings to promote collaboration with national institutions, international agencies, NGO and donors in prevention, preparedness, response, rehabilitation, information dissemination and research;
  7. Manage the Secretariat which shall provide services to the Executive Committee and the Scientific and Technical Committee;
  8. Publish and regularly update policy documents and national guidelines relating to all aspects of emergency management;
  9. Prepare and disseminate emergency manuals and other publications related to all aspects of emergency management;
  10. Provide instruction to the Provincial and Municipal CDM and other institutions on emergency management;
  11. Develop programmes for community participation in emergency management;
  12. Advise the Executive Committee on all matters concerning emergency management and operations;
  13. Advise the Council of Ministers on all matters concerning emergency management;

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4.2.3. Terms of Reference of the Secretariat

a) Role of the Secretariat

The Secretariat is:

  1. the implementing body of NCDM;
  2. responsible to the Executive Committee;
  3. managed by the Permanent Secretary, NCDM.

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b) Responsibility of the Secretariat

The Secretariat shall:

  1. Formulate recommendations to the Executive Committee for the declaration of a State of Disaster in areas that have been extensively damaged;
  2. As part of recommendations on such a declaration, submit proposals to restore normalcy in the affected areas;
  3. Make recommendations to the Executive Committee, regarding declarations of emergency by Governors;
  4. Host the Scientific and Technical Committee composed of permanent representatives from the member agencies and other government agencies with the Permanent Secretary as chair;
  5. Refer proposals on policy and procedural issues, and the technical aspects of emergency management activities to the Scientific and Technical Committee;
  6. Advise the Executive Committee, on the status of emergency preparedness programmes, emergency operations and rehabilitation efforts undertaken by the government and the private sector,
  7. Develop guidelines on emergency preparedness and emergency operations involving rescue, relief and rehabilitation;
  8. Establish priorities in the allocation of funds, services, equipment and relief supplies;
  9. Advise the local CDM in accordance with national policy and guidelines on emergency management;
  10. Provide training to government staff on all aspects of emergency management;
  11. Formulate and submit to the Executive Committee, interim reports during declared emergencies and disasters;
  12. Formulate and submit to the Executive Committee, a final report for each declared emergency and disaster, in which recommendations for changes in policy and practice are made;

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4.2.4. Structure of the Secretariat

The NCDM Secretariat was established according to Decision N‹. 48 dated July 10, 1995.

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It shall be reorganised according to the Structure below and shall have five permanent staff. It shall be supplemented by seconded staff as required.

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Division

Unit

Permanent Staff

Seconded Staff

Emergency Co-ordination Centre (Ecc)

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Director

Deputy Director

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Health, Sanitation and Relief (HSR)

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Chief Member

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Rescue. Evacuation and Transport (RET)

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Chief Member

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Security and Liaison (SLU)

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Chief Member

Administration cad Finance (AFD)

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Director Deputy Director

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Administration (ADMIN)

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Chief 2 Members

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Finance (FIN)

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Chief 2 Members

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Personnel (PER)

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Chief

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Reporting (REP)

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Chief

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Logistics(LOG)

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Chief Member

Emergency Preparedness Programmes

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Director Deputy Director

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Policy and Legislation(PLU)

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Chief Member

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Plans and Procedures(PPU)

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Chief Member

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Human and institutional Resources(HIR)

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Chief Member

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Public information

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Chief 4 Members

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Research and Technical Information (RTI)

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Chief Member

Staff

Total

5

30

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4.2.5. Emergency Co-ordination Centre (ECC)

The ECC evaluates emergency situations, determines courses of action to follow in times of emergency, formulates and issues guidelines for evaluating emergency situations and submits reports to the Permanent Secretary during and after emergency operations. The ECC shall:

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1. On notification of a potential or actual emergency, open an incident room and establish a command structure, according to established guidelines;

2. Inform the Permanent Secretary, Executive Committee and relevant agencies and administrative bodies when an incident room is established;

3. Consolidate initial reports and submit them to the Permanent Secretary for submission to the Executive Committee for their information and action;

4. Each day at 1500 hours during a declared emergency or disaster, submit consolidated reports to the Executive Committee for their information and action;

5. Each day at 1,700 hours during a declared emergency or disaster, submit decisions issued by the Executive Committee to relevant agencies and administrative bodies for their information and action;

6. Each day at 1730 hours during a declared emergency or disaster, submit reports issued by the Executive Committee to mandated public information agencies. for dissemination;

7. Evaluate information and informs the member agencies of the Provincial and Municipal Emergency Co-ordination Centres on relief operations;

8. Monitor progress of operations and determines the validity of requests for additional resources or services;

9. Submit recommendations to the Executive Committee for allocation of technical and managerial resources;

10. Consolidate information on urgent items needed in helping the victims of emergencies as well as gather the necessary data on availability of resources such as:

    • Food - rice, corn, canned goods, vegetables, fish1 meat, soft drinks and other grocery items;
    • Clothing - clothing materials and footwear;
    • Energy and fuel supplies;
    • Shelter materials;
    • Medical Supplies - medicines and equipment;
    • Construction materials ? timber, cement, roofing materials and hardware;
    • Transport - government and military vehicles and specialised private vehicles;
    • Technical expertise in relation to technological hazards such as chemical accidents;
    • Other rehabilitation items such as seeds, implements, pesticides, fertilisers, livestock and fingerlings;

11. Co-ordinate security arrangements for emergency areas, emergency workers, victims and VIPs visiting emergency areas;

12. Liaise with International Organisations, NGOs, Embassies and families of international victims;

13. Determine courses of action to be taken based on recommendations of the Executive Committee including the type of services to be utilised in the emergency area;

14. Prepare appropriate recommendations to proper authorities for possible declaration of the existence a State of Disaster in affected areas. This recommendation shall serve as a basis for the request for the release of funds from the Emergency Relief Fund;

15. As part of a final report, make recommendations on how to prevent a similar emergency situation, if possible, and suggest precautionary measures to minimise the effects of a similar emergency

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Resources surveys will include the names and addresses of dealers, agencies or persons who may donate, contribute or make available such resources that may be needed to assist victims. This data should be provided for immediate reference to those who are called upon to render assistance and relief to the victims.

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4.2.6. Emergency Preparedness Programme (EPP)

The Emergency Preparedness Programme shall:

  1. Advise and submit proposals for amendments or modifications to legal and policy documents;
  2. Monitor and supervise implementation of existing plans and procedures;
  3. Develop curricula and training materials;
  4. Undertake training and briefing activities;
  5. Prepare appropriate reports on unit activities;
  6. Develop and disseminate information for the public;
  7. Establish and maintain databases of the following information:

    • National, sectoral and institutional emergency plans;
    • National, sectoral and institutional emergency procedures:
    • Meetings of co-ordination bodies;
    • Audits of mandatory public safety and emergency response procedures in the public and private sector;
    • Refresher training;
    • Early warning systems;
    • Specialised communication systems;
    • Information systems and databases;
    • Condition and quality of emergency response equipment;
    • Stockpiles and buffer stocks of essential supplies and key spare parts;
    • Simulation exercises;
    • Updated technical information related to particular hazards;
    • Population density;
    • Vulnerable groups - prisons, mental hospitals, orphanages, homes for the handicapped, spontaneous settlements;
    • Areas previously affected by the same hazard;
    • Land elevations for flood risk;
    • Sanitation, industrial, chemical and nuclear hazards;
    • Potential emergency shelter sites;
    • Proposed food distribution points;
    • Water and sanitation information, both rural and urban;
    • Transport systems and networks;
    • Health centres;
    • Warehouses;
    • Utility networks and distribution points - electricity, gas, water;
    • communication networks;
    • Residences of essential staff;
    • Essential businesses and factories;
    • Fuel storage points and distribution sources;
    • Community preparedness focal points;
    • Emergency services - police, fire, ambulance, civil defence; military;
    • Ongoing routine maintenance of roads and utilities;
    • Essential relief items, with specifications and average costs;
    • Local manufacturers or suppliers of relief items, with information on quality; capability; delivery times and reliability;
    • Provincial manufacturers or suppliers of relief items, with information on quality, capability; delivery times and reliability;
    • List of agencies working in the country, with information on their competence and capacity to be involved in emergency relief activities;
    • List of essential relief items not available in the country, or the region, which would need to be obtained abroad, with available information on potential international sources;
    • Information on customs and taxation regulations covering the importation and transit of relief and other items;
    • Information on essential relief resources that will allow a rapid response e.g. water supply systems; sanitation systems; health networks; alternate shelter sites; shelter materials; ports, airports and transport networks; foods; fuel and energy supplies warehouses; communications systems etc.;
    • Information on the designated focal points for emergency preparedness and response in ministries, NGO and international agencies;
    • Information on resource persons and reference centres with specific expertise for specific hazards, especially for technological emergencies;

  1. Develop Early Warning Systems that cover:

    • Severe weather,
    • Flood, fire and drought;
    • Other natural hazards;
    • Shortages of food;
    • Outbreaks of disease and epidemics;
    • Movements of population;
    • Technological and industrial hazards;
    • Economic crises;
    • Social and political unrest;
    • War and insurgencies;

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4.2.7. Finance and Administration Division (AFD)

The Finance and Administration Division shall:

1. Undertake all aspects of the routine administration of NCDM;

2. Undertake personnel and staff related activities;

3. Prepare routine and special reports;

4. Prepare, process and collate vouchers, requests for payments, quotations and supporting documents For NCDM expenditures and expenses;

5. Record, update and maintains the NCDM books of accounts and ledgers;

6. Regularly summarise financial transactions and prepare the financial reports therefrom in accordance with prescribed reporting formats, terms and conditions;

  1. Prepare analysis of financial information for use of NCDM management and other
  2. financial information users;

  3. Liaise and make representations for and on behalf of NCDM on matters involving

the accounting and reporting of NCDM fluids and NCDM-managed finds.

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4.3. Terms of Reference Of NCDM Member Organisations

4.3.1. Role

The role of NCDM Member Organisations is to determine national policy for emergency management in Cambodia.

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4.3.2. Responsibility

The member organisations of the Committee shall have the following tasks:

  1. The Prime Ministers, as Co-Presidents of NCDM shall:

    • Chair the Executive Committee to define national policy for emergency preparedness, emergency operations and recovery and rehabilitation activities;
    • Declare a State of Disaster on the advice of the Permanent Secretary, NCDM;
    • Call on all other Ministries, Departments, Bureaux, Agencies, and Corporations of the government and the private sector for assistance in preparing for, reacting to and recovering from the effects of emergencies;

  1. The Ministry of Interior, through the Director-General, Administration, shall be responsible for overseeing the organisation of local CDM and the establishment of functional co-ordination centres in all local government areas;
  2. The Ministry of industry, Mines and Energy shall be responsible for the organisation of emergency management groups in all manufacturing, mining, commercial and industrial complexes, utilising the existing safety guidelines;
  3. The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sp6rt (MEYS) shall be responsible for the organisation of emergency management groups and response teams in all schools an institutions of learning;
  4. The Ministry of Social Welfare, Labour and Veterans (MswLv), the Cambodian Red Cross (CRC) and the Secretary of State, Womenfs affairs (sswA) shall be responsible for the extension of social services to victims;
  5. The Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) shall be responsible for ...;
  6. Council of Ministers Office (CMO) shall be responsible for ...;
  7. Ministry of National Defence (MND) shall be responsible for ...;
  8. Ministry of Environment shall be responsible for ...;
  9. Ministry of Public Works and Transport shall be responsible for ...;
  10. Ministry of Agriculture, Forests and Fisheries shall be responsible for ...;
  11. Ministry of Foreign Affairs & international Co-operation shall be responsible for ...;
  12. Ministry of Health shall be responsible for ...;
  13. Ministry of Planning shall be responsible for ...;
  14. Ministry of Information shall be responsible for ...;
  15. Ministry of Cults and Religious Affairs shall be responsible for ...;
  16. Ministry of Rural Development shall be responsible for...;
  17. Cambodian Development Council shall be responsible for ...;

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All members of NCDM shall make available their personnel, facilities and expertise to carry out effectively the functions of the Committee.

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5. NCDM POLICY

5.1. General Policy Elements

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5.2. NCDM Philosophy

The philosophy underpinning the policy of NCDM is one in which an understanding of hazards, their behaviour and the risks they pose to communities is considered fundamental to achieving successful emergency management. This approach emphasises five areas as being essential components of any emergency management programme:

  1. hazard assessment;
  2. vulnerability analysis;
  3. disaster reduction;
  4. emergency preparedness;
  5. emergency response;

This philosophy seeks to take a broad approach to emergency management in that it avoids particular emphasis on disasters alone. It sees all disasters as being essentially man-made. It is their cause i.e. hazards, that are classified as either natural or man-made. It is based on the use of four key terms, which are defined as follow:

  • Hazardccany phenomenon, material or structure that has the potential to cause disruption or damage to people, their property or their environment. Hazards are classified as natural or man-made;

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The following additional terms are important:

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  • Emergency Preparedness Programme

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Is: an integrated programme of long-term, multi-sectoral development activities which create the kind of supportive political, legal, managerial, financial, and social environment that will result in the co-ordinated and efficient use of available resources in:

[1] minimising the impact of hazards on communities, and

[2] managing the transition from emergency relief to recovery, reconstruction and rehabilitation, in accordance with existing goals and plans for sustainable national development.

The goal of emergency preparedness programmes is to achieve ever higher levels of sectoral, institutional or national readiness.

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a state of readiness for emergencies exists when an environment has been established in which communities, through their public, private and voluntary services and institutions, are ready and able to cope effectively at any time with both the impact and consequences of most hazards, with little or no external assistance

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an official state where extraordinary administrative procedures for coping with a hazard are activated and reserved powers for designated officials are invoked by a government, organisation or institution

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an official state where extraordinary administrative procedures activated for an emergency response are declared insufficient to cope with the impact of a hazard and therefore external agents are required to assist or to take over managerial responsibility

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5.3. NCDM Goal

The goal of NCDM is to raise the level of national readiness to respond to emergencies in Cambodia. This will be achieved though undertaking its responsibilities using a hazard-based approach and will be implemented through emergency preparedness programmes.

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5.4. NCDM Role

The: role of NCDM in assisting its member agencies to manage emergencies through achieving its goal of raising levels of institutional readiness to respond1 is:

To strengthen their capability, through its National, Provincial and Municipal Offices, to:

    1. respond to emergency situations appropriately and effectively.
    2. reduce the burden of hazards on society, by supporting the development of national and sub-national sectoral emergency preparedness and disaster prevention programmes;

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5.5. NCDM Responsibility

5.5.1. General Areas of Responsibility

The general responsibility of NCDM in fulfilling its role is:

    1. in Emergency Preparedness, to strengthen the capacity of its member agencies and promote their self reliance at national and sub-national levels.
    2. in Emergency Relief, co-ordination of all agents active in emergency management and liaison with international agencies for support and collaboration;

The outcome of undertaking these responsibilities will be a strengthening of the levels of readiness to respond of all agents active in emergency management in Cambodia.

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5.5.2. Specific Areas of Responsibility

In order to achieve this goal of raising levels of institutional readiness in Cambodia, NCDM has identified six key areas of specific responsibility. The outcome of undertaking these responsibilities is the strengthening of the technical and managerial capability of communities, through their government bodies, organisations and institutions, to deal with hazards and their consequences.

The specific areas of responsibility for NCDM are:

    1. the co-ordination of emergency management at national and sub national levels;
    2. to promote the development of national legislation and national policy for emergency management;
    3. to promote the development of plans and procedures for emergency management;
    4. to strengthen institutional and human resources for emergency management;
    5. to promote the development of programmes for public education, public awareness and community participation in emergency management;
    6. to promote the collection, analysis and dissemination of information related to emergencies and disasters;

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5.6. NCDM National Strategy

The strategy of NCDM will follow in order to meet its responsibilities is as follows:

    1. An institutional philosophy based on understanding and using the terms hazard analysis, vulnerability analysis, emergency management and disaster reduction in preference to other similar or alternative terms;
    2. Emphasis on linking emergency management to the national development strategy;
    3. Promotion of, support for and implementation of the DNDR Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World;
    4. Emphasis on the co-ordination function of NCDM;
    5. Adoption of a partnership approach with other actors in the field, including government Ministries, Departments, Bureaux, Corporations, Authorities and Agencies, technical and academic institutions (local and international), inter-governmental bodies, donors, local and international NGOs and UN agencies;
    6. Intensification of collaborative relations between CRC and NCDM;
    7. Development of a network of collaborating academic centres;
    8. Focus on key issues as identified by the members of NCDM;
    9. Adoption of a role for NCDM in general safety promotion;
    10. Adoption of a role for NCDM in advocacy for the protection of victims, emergency response personnel and infrastructure in emergency situations;
    11. Promotion and encouragement of a spirit of self-reliance and mutual benefit in government agencies and local communities;

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5.7. NCDM Sub-national Strategy

The following elements have been identified as defining the NCDM strategy for working at sub-national level:

    1. Work primarily through the Provincial and Municipal CDM;
    2. Ensure that the provision of emergency and humanitarian relief is timely, relevant and well co-ordinated;
    3. Co-operate with local community organisations;
    4. Encourage national programmes for emergency management to support local initiatives;
    5. Ensure that emergency response can be used to promote longer term development;
    6. Provide support for rehabilitating damaged infrastructure;
    7. Use all available resources in the local area before asking for assistance from other areas or higher authority;
    8. Broaden activities to include sectors other than government in disaster reduction activities;
    9. Assess and analyse vulnerability of communities, their environment and their infrastructure to specific hazards;
    10. Strengthen and streamline procurement, supply and personnel procedures;
    11. Promote local purchasing and employment of local expertise;

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5.8. Benefits from a National Emergency Management Policy

NCDM will assist Ministries, Departments, Bureaux, Corporations, Authorities and Agencies to prepare for and respond to emergencies. The following are some of the products that can be expected having a strong and active NCDM:

    1. National policies, national plans and standard procedures for emergency management;
    2. Managerial units in each of the Ministries, Departments, Bureaux, Corporations, Authorities and Agencies mandated for a role in emergency preparedness and emergency response activities, including mechanisms for participating in inter-sectoral co-ordination processes
    3. Funds for emergency preparedness and emergency response from international support as well as from national sources;
    4. Mechanisms for receiving and accounting for international assistance during an emergency;
    5. Plans and procedures for emergency preparedness and emergency response for each of the Ministries, Departments, Bureaux, Corporations, Authorities and Agencies e.g. in health services: disaster medicine, mass casualties and hospitals, temporary emergency services, epidemiology and disease surveillance, nutrition, environmental health, hazard-specific plans, resource management etc.;
    6. Co-ordinated Ambulance, Fire, Police, First Aid and Search and Rescue services;
    7. An emergency management component of the curricula of all sectoral and public service training institutions;
    8. Manuals, guidelines, reporting formats, technical series and training materials;
    9. Cycles of refresher training for emergency management, including simulation exercises and drills;
    10. Communication and information systems for emergencies, including databases, stockpiling and buffer stocks;
    11. A national development planning process which includes data relevant to emergencies, including early warning systems;
    12. Public information, public awareness and community participation programmes for the public information and community participation aspects of emergencies;
    13. Reduction in the number of deaths and injuries and levels of property damage caused by the effects of hazards and consequently, preservation of national wealth.

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5.9. Declaration of Policy

Therefore, it is the policy of the State that:

    1. Self reliance shall be developed by promoting and encouraging the spirit of self help and mutual assistance among local officials and their constituents;
    2. The primary responsibility for emergency management rests on the mandated government agencies in the affected areas in collaboration with local people themselves and in co-ordination relevant local authorities;
    3. This responsibility will be exercised through a Provincial or Municipal declaration of a State of Emergency
    4. The Royal Government may assume control of a crisis by declaring a State of Disaster;
    5. All government Ministries, Departments, Bureaux, Corporations, Authorities and Agencies and administrative sub-divisions of the country shall set aside a reserve of budget to establish an Emergency Relief Fund;
    6. It shall be the responsibility of all administrative subdivision of the country to have documented plans of their emergency functions and activities;
    7. It shall be the responsibility of all government Ministries, Departments, Bureaux, Corporations, Authorities and Agencies to have documented plans of their emergency functions and activities;
    8. Each administrative subdivision of the country shall utilise all available resources in the area before asking for assistance from neighbouring entities or higher authorities;
    9. All government Ministries, Departments, Bureau Corporations, Authorities and Agencies shall utilise all available resources before asking for assistance from other entities or higher authorities;
    10. In the absence of a duly constituted Provincial government, national government offices at the Provincial level shall be led and operationally controlled by an official so designated by the Executive Committee, NCDM;
    11. Planning and operation shall also be done on the District. Commune and Village level in an inter-agency, multi-sectoral basis to optimise the utilisation of resources;
    12. Responsibility for leadership rests primarily with the Provincial and Municipal Governors;
    13. All District leaders shall designate in advance evacuation areas for use in emergencies, and shall define plans for providing essential services to those sites when in use;
    14. When an emergency affects an area covering several towns and cities, the local CDM, their personnel and their facilities shall be placed under the operational control of the Provincial or Municipal Governor for the duration of the emergency;
    15. The national government exists to support the local governments. In time of emergencies and according to their level of assignment, all national government offices in the field shall support the operations of the local government;
    16. To ensure that all responsible agencies, their staff and the public are familiar with policy, plans and procedures, periodic exercises and drills shall be conducted at all levels, principally at the District level;

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5.10. Special Policy Issues

5.10.1. Declaration of a State of Emergency or Disaster

A Governor of a Province or a Municipality may declare a State of Emergency when conditions are such that the province or municipality has insufficient human or material resources to control a particular hazard. In declaring a state of emergency the governor concerned shall seek ratification from NCDM within 24 hours. A declaration of a state of emergency devolves special powers on specific government officials and is de facto a request for NCDM to provide national resources to the affected province or municipality. In proclaiming a State of Emergency, the Governor retains leadership of the management of the crisis.

The President ofENCDM may declare a State of Disaster when the threat of a hazard is such that the Royal Government of Cambodia has insufficient resources to deal with the relief effort. Declaration of a State of Disaster empowers NCDM to take over management of the problem from local authorities and authorises the Permanent Secretary, NCDM to seek international assistance, both financial and material.

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5.10.2. Procedures and Criteria for Recommending a Declaration

a) Procedures

    1. Whenever an emergency occurs, the CDM of the affected district(s), assisted by the MCDM or PCDM, shall immediately undertake a damage and needs assessment of the Area;
    2. After assessment of the damages and identification of immediate needs, the MCDM or PCDM concerned shall in the fastest means possible, submit a report thereon and recommend to the NCDM the declaration of a State of Emergency in the affected areas to either with the appropriate remedial measures;
    3. NCDM, after immediate and thorough verification, assessment and evaluation of the reports on damages, shall recommend to the NCDM President ratification of the declaration of a State of Emergency in the affected areas:

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b) Criteria for Declaring a State of Emergency

A Governor may recommend that a Municipality or Province be placed under a State of Emergency. This may be done whenever two or more of the following conditions brought about by a hazard of great magnitude [such as destructive storms, earthquakes, major accidents, floods lasting for at least a week, epidemics and drought affecting total crop production], are present:

    1. At least thirty percent (30%) of the population of the Municipality or Province is affected in that their dwelling units have been destroyed, and they are in need of emergency assistance;
    2. There is disruption of the primary lifelines of shelter, energy, potable water and food supply which cannot be restored within one (1) week; or
    3. There is disruption of secondary lifelines such as transport, communications and other related systems which cannot be restored within one (1) month; or
    4. A significant number of the means of livelihood such as fishing boats, vehicles and the like are destroyed; or
    5. Major roads and bridges are destroyed or will be impassable for at least a week, thus disrupting the flow of transport and commerce; or
    6. There is widespread destruction of fishponds, crops, poultry and livestock, and other agricultural products;

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c) Criteria for Declaring a State of Disaster

The NCDM may recommend that a Municipality or Province(s) be placed under a State of Disaster whenever the conditions for declaration of a State of Emergency are present, and the level of damage, or the level of managerial expertise required to deal with that hazard is beyond the capability of the local authorities.

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d) Measures to be Undertaken

The Declaration of a State of Emergency or Disaster shall make it mandatory that the following measures be immediately undertaken by the concerned agencies. The objective is to mitigate the effects of the hazard and stabilise the situation in the affected areas:

    1. Control of overpricing of prime commodities and prevention of the hoarding of the same by the Ministry of industry, Mines and Energy;
    2. Programming or reprogramming of funds for the repair of public infrastructure and buildings;
    3. Granting of special loans or restructuring of existing loans by the government financing or lending institutions to bona-fide victims;
    4. Deferment or placing a moratorium on the payment of taxes and amortisation of debts due the government, upon certification of proper authorities;
    5. Release of Emergency Relief Funds to agencies involved in relief operations and in rehabilitation and restoration of damaged infrastructure;

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5.10.3. Policies and Procedures in Requesting, Allocating, Releasing and Monitoring of the Emergency Relief Fund

a) Policies

    1. A declaration of a State of Emergency or Disaster of the affected areas shall be the basis for the release of Emergency Relief Funds by the Pr me Minister;
    2. A declaration of a State of Disaster shall be considered as an authorisation for NCDM take over direct management of the crisis from local authorities and seeks international support in doing so;
    3. Priority shall be given to emergency relief operations, medical assistance. and immediate repairs of damaged infrastructure in the release of Emergency Relief Funds;
    4. Emergency Relief Funds shall be released directly to the following implementing Ministries, Departments, Bureaux, Corporations, Authorities and Agencies for the stated specific purposes:

    • MSWLV - for emergency relief and rehabilitation assistance to victims;
    • MOH- for medical assistance to victims;
    • MPWT - for immediate repair or restoration of damaged vital infrastructure which includes school buildings, transportation facilities and infrastructure;
    • MEYS - for replacement of materials and restoration and repair of school buildings (including libraries, laboratories, toilet blocks) to be undertaken in co-ordination with MPWT;
    • MAFF - for assistance to the agricultural sector;
    • MPT - for repair/restoration of basic communication facilities and infrastructure;
    • MND - through the Armed Forces of Cambodia - for backup support to mandated authorities in re1ie~ rescue and evacuation activities, repair of vital communications links, general transport activities and the repair and rehabilitation of public utilities;
    • Other Ministries, Departments, Bureaux, Corporations, Authorities and Agencies requiring immediate repair and restoration of vital infrastructure and facilities, according to guidelines on priority allocations as defined in the rules and regulations for administering the Emergency Relief Fund;

    1. Emergency Relief Funds may not be released directly to local government units;
    2. Requests for Emergency Relief Funds shall not be considered for restoration/reconstruction of damaged buildings located in areas of high risk of seismic activity, mudflows, storm surges, tsunamis and flooding except as may later be recommended by MPWT;
    3. Ministries, Departments, Bureaux, Corporations, Authorities and Agencies involved in emergency operations shall first use their available resources to support their activities;
    4. Requests for Emergency Relief Funds by implementing agencies shall be submitted to the Secretariat, NCDM for evaluation by the Scientific and Technical Committee which will forward its recommendations to the Executive Committee, NCDM within 24 hours of receipt

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b) Procedures

- Emergency Relief and Rehabilitation Operations

For any emergency, the DBM shall make available funds from regular sources for use in urgent emergency relief operations, medical assistance and immediate repairs of damaged infrastructure to be undertaken by the MSWLV, MOH, MPWT, and MND.

In addition, the Executive Committee, NCDM may instruct the DBM to make available specified amounts from the Emergency Relief Fund, according to the following procedures.

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- Emergency Relief Fund for Recovery and Rehabilitation

    1. The local Committees through the implementing agencies shall undertake survey s of damages within their areas of responsibility and submit within the earliest possible time derailed damage are needs assessment, indicating priorities. through the established channels for submission to the NCDM;
    2. A request for release of Emergency Relief Funds must include an annex with reports of damages to infrastructure, including the additional supporting documents such as photographs, etc. This shall be submitted by the Provincial Engineer through the MPWT Office, which shall review, prioritise and consolidate reports of damages in the province and submit it to the Minister, MPWT who in turn will submit the request to NCDM;
    3. In case of damaged school buildings and local government infrastructure, the requirements for repair and restoration shall be co-ordinated by MPWT with MEYS and DGA;
    4. The request for Emergency Relief Funds by departments and agencies concerned in restoration and rehabilitation activities shall be supported by a work programme with cost estimates;
    5. The NCDM Scientific and Technical Committee shall evaluate and prioritise the requests submitted by the implementing government agencies;
    6. The NCDM, through its Permanent Secretary, shall submit the request through the Ministry of Economy and Finance MEF) to the Executive Committee, NCDM for approval;
    7. Upon approval of the Executive Committee, NCDM, the MEF shall release the funds to the implementing agencies concerned, informing the Permanent Secretary, NCDM of such releases;
    8. The implementing agencies upon the release of the funds, shall undertake the immediate implementation of their respective work programmes;
    9. The implementing agencies upon the completion of their respective work programmes shall submit a financial and narrative report to NCDM within thirty (30) days of completion;

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- Additional Release of Emergency Relief Funds

    1. In case there are requests for release of additional Emergency Relief Funds from local Committees, the requirements together with the report on damages and other documents to substantiate the claim shall be submitted to NCDM or review, prioritisation and consolidation;
    2. The implementing Ministries, Departments, Bureaux, Corporations, Authorities and Agencies shall return any unused funds from the Emergency Relief Fund released for that particular emergency;

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- Monitoring the Utilisation of Emergency Relief Funds

NCDM is the statutory body responsible the ratifying any declaration of a State of Emergency in affected areas and authorising the release of Emergency Relief Funds. As such, it shall monitor the utilisation of such funds for relief and rehabilitation activities and shall prepare reports for submission to the Executive Committee, NCDM.

    1. Agencies concerned shall submit monthly statements of utilisation of Emergency Relief Funds;
    2. These reports, together with supplementary supporting documents, shall be the basis of the NCDM in determining the need to recommend further releases of Emergency Relief Funds;

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5.10.4. Reporting Requirements for Release of Funds

In view of the above, the following guidelines are hereby adopted;

  1. Data Collection

All concerned agencies shall undertake damage and needs assessments, according to published guidelines, within their scope of responsibility These shall be submitted to NCDM in the approved format for requests for relief and rehabilitation assistance, within a maximum two (2) weeks and two (2) months, respectively, from the onset of the emergency.

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b) Relief Operations

The local CDM, supported by the member agencies at the national level, shall undertake emergency relief operations in affected areas. NCDM shall monitor the relief operations and activities of concerned agencies. The Committee then shall facilitate agency requests for (additional) resource requirements not funded from their existing budget by submitting a consolidated damage and needs assessment report to NCDM.

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c) Rehabilitation

NCDM Secretariat shall be responsible for consolidating proposals for rehabilitation projects and forwarding them to the Scientific and Technical Committee for evaluation. The STC shall recommend priorities to the Executive Committee for approval of funding. For this purpose, all agencies concerned shall adhere to the following:

    1. All agencies concerned shall submit their proposed rehabilitation projects to NCDM. In ranking their proposed projects the agencies shall be guided by the following criteria:

    • The impact on (qualitative and quantitative) or benefit to the locality;
    • The immediate availability of technical and funding support from internal sources of concerned agencies;
    • The emphasis given to rehabilitation and reconstruction of facilities directly supportive to productive activities;
    • Social infrastructure and other social services components immediately needed by the locality;

    1. Based on the above reports, the NCDM Secretariat shall prepare a consolidated rehabilitation programme and the corresponding financial plan for submission to and approval of the Executive Committee;
    2. Upon approval of the Executive Committee, MEF, through the Department of Budget Management (DBM), shall facilitate the release of requested budgetary requirements to agencies concerned;
    3. The NCDM Secretariat shall monitor the implementation of such rehabilitation programme and submit a report to the Office of the Prime Minister through the Council of Ministers;

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d) Foreign Assistance

NCDM in requesting for foreign assistance shall be guided by the following policies of the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC):

    1. Maintaining self-reliance and national authority is essential;
    2. Foreign emergency and rehabilitation assistance shall be solicited only when requirements arising from human and physical damages are beyond the capability of the Royal Government of Cambodia;
    3. When offered any foreign assistance may be accepted based on the consolidated requirements;
    4. NCDM shall scrutinise and prioritise all requests;
    5. Requests for external assistance for relief and rehabilitation shall be endorsed to concerned foreign governments and the UN system agencies and other international bodies by the e Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cc-operation(MFAIC) and the Cambodian Development Council(CDC) as the case may be upon determination that the resources of RGC are inadequate to meet the requirements:
    6. MFAJC and CDC shall inform the concerned departments/agencies and the NCDM of the assistance provided by foreign donors;
    7. In case of cash donations, the recipient agency shall deposit their donations to the National Treasury and shall immediately notify the DEM and the NCDM. The MEF shall immediately release the funds based on prioritised requirements while the NCDM shall monitor the utilisation of said assistance by the departments/agencies concerned;

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e) Source of Funds

To ensure the immediate availability of funds, the following measures shall be undertaken:

    1. The agencies concerned shall first use their available resources through budget realignment;
    2. Additional funding requirements for relief and rehabilitation Programmes and Projects shall be charged to the Emergency Relief Fund subject to the approval of the President, NCDM.

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5.10.5. Policies and Procedures on Foreign Assistance/or Emergencies

a) Policy

The NCDM shall be guided by the following policies:

    1. Foreign assistance shall be accepted when offers are made by foreign countries or agencies;
    2. Assistance shall be solicited when requirements arising from human and physical damages are beyond the capability of the Royal Government of Cambodia;
    3. Requests for foreign assistance shall be submitted by the departments/agencies concerned only through NCDM;
    4. While foreign assistance may be solicited or accepted, all departments and agencies mandated for emergency management should strive to develop their capability for self reliance;

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b) Procedures:

    1. Foreign assistance whether requested or unsolicited shall be accepted according to the areas of responsibility of concerned agencies as follows:
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      Food, clothing, shelter and other basic needs MSWLV

      Medicines & medical equipment MOH

      Agricultural assistance MAFF

      Construction materials & services MPWT

      Educational materials & school facilities MEYS

      Scientific and technological materials and services DHTE

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    3. NCDM shall make the necessary arrangements for tax exemption, landing permits, quarantine and other requirements to facilitate entry of the assistance;
    4. The request for foreign assistance during emergencies shall be undertaken as follows:

    • The implementing Ministries, Departments, Bureaux, Corporations, Authorities and Agencies upon determination of their needs, shall submit the formal request for multilateral and bilateral assistance to possible donors through the MFAIC and CDC, respectively. Copies of the detailed requirements shall be furnished the MCDM;
    • The MFAIC and CDC shall inform the Ministries, Departments, Bureaux, Corporations, Authorities and Agencies concerned through NCDM on the availability of external assistance from donor countries or agencies;
    • Upon receipt of the foreign assistance, the Ministries, Departments, Bureaux, Corporations, Authorities and Agencies concerned shall inform the NCDM;
    • In receiving cash donations, the recipient agencies shall observe established government procedures and requirements;

    1. Report on the utilisation or distribution of foreign donation shall be submitted to NCDM by the recipient agencies within one month after the acceptance of the assistance;

6. NCDM EXPERIENCES

6.1. Receiving International Assistance

6.1.3. Unclear Channels for Receiving International Assistance

Cambodia has not yet clearly channels for receiving assistance. According to Government policy it is under responsibility of the NCDM and the Cambodian Red Cross. However during the 1996 floods, in order to deliver assistance on time some donors distributed themselves directly to flood victims because they saw those victims were seriously suffering. Some other donors gave gifts to flood victims through NCDM or some time through CRC, but NCDM however recorder all relief activities. NCDM and CRC collaborated well in responding to 1996 floods arid evaluations carried cut L, both parties highlighted good overall results.

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6.1.3. The Importance of Team Work

The 1996 brought all relevant agencies together. The newly established NCDM, relevant government ministries, CRC, IFRC, a number of NGOfs, UN-DMT, in Cambodia, Coordinated well as a team. In responding to 1996 floods, together the co-ordination group identified three important issues to be addressed:

    1. The need for standard assessment procedures
    2. The need to seek emergency assistance
    3. The need for an emergency working group

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Addressing these 3 issues is very important in delivering effective supplies and other forms of assistance to flood victims. With assistance from UN-DMT and NGOfs, the NCDM launched a consolidated appeal which was well received and generated positive and rapid response from NGO, UN agencies and International donors countries. NCDM actively participated in all activities for emergency response, launching appeal, planning, co-ordinating, mobilising domestic resource for emergency relief supplies, conducting assessment of damages, seeking International emergency assistance and providing immediate and effective response to people in areas affected by floods. NCDM has experience in receiving International assistance as presented below:

    • Organising and official reception ceremony for donors.
    • Reporting to donors on storage maintenance, distribution and stock situation and balance.
    • Inviting donors to accompany NCDM for distribution of supplies to disaster victims.

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6.1.3. The importance of good field assessment

At the beginning of the emergency operation, NcDM, CRC and other organisations visited the affected areas in order to collect accurate information on damage and the needs of the victims in order to provide them with assistance. During this process we spent a lot of money visiting the affected areas during field assessments, preferring not to wait at head office for the reports from the field to come in. We than felt confident about the quality of the assessment information as we had first hand experience. Before delivering any food assistance, we discussed carefully with other member of Emergency Working Group C EWG) before making any decisions.

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6.2. Utilization of International Assistance

6.2.1. Upon Arrival of Assistance

We met with the donors ourselves or appointed our preventatives to accompany the donors in order to check the type and quantity of the donated items. Due to the lack of an NCDM warehouse we used CRCfs warehouse to store all kinds of donations.

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6.2.2. Distribution of Relief Supplies

This was carried out only after discussions were held between NCDM and EWG. If it was beyond the EWGfs capacity we asked for assistance from the co-president of NCDM. The distribution process was not perfect because had no communication system and depended on CRC good information network. We also depended on CRC to carry cut assessment, transportation and distributions.

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6.2.3. Unclean Roles and Responsibilities

In 1994 arid 1995 CRC had the main role of responding during floods. in late 1995, NCDM was established as the main body responsible for major disaster. During the 1996 floods, some provinces forwarded their requests for assistance to CRC whilst others made requests directly to NCDIA. It became clear that the roles and responsibilities of the two organisations had not yet been clearly defined. Donors were also confused, some providing assistance through CRC, other donors proceeding through NCDM. However, NCDM was responsible for writing and overall summery report of all assistance received.

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7. Conclusion

Even though the NCDM was a new organisation, it could respond to the 1996 floods and other disasters, but it is still constrained by lack of capacity to deal with major disasters, specifically limited human resources, no disaster management facilities, lack of fund and resource for various activities.

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Given that various alternatives and solutions for responding to disasters are at the initial study phase, there is a need to promote co-operation with UN agencies and between countries in the Asian Region, in order to find several sources of funding and provision of technology, aiming to solve problems related to the disaster management. Especially, there is a necessity to promote co-operation with countries who have disaster response co-ordination experience (e.g. in floods, droughts...etc..)

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