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III-Past Major Disaster

1-Disaster situation 2000  

The flooding in Cambodia in 2000 was reportedly the worst in more than 70 years. The official report compiled by the National Committee for Disaster Management (NCDM) on 16 November 2000, put the death toll at 347 (80 percent of whom were children). Of the 750,618 families (3,448, 629 individuals) affected by flooding, about 85,000 families (387,000 individuals) had to be temporarily evacuated. Furthermore, 317,975 houses were gdamagedh, while 7,068 were gdestroyedh. Based on this NCDM report, the Council of Ministers estimates total physical and direct damage at US$ 150 million. The flood of 2000 affected all the four countries in the Mekong River Basin including Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand. But it was in Cambodia that the most severe effects of flood occurred based on reports compiled by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). The deaths in Cambodia constitutes 43% of total deaths (800) in all countries, while the direct damages represents 40% of total damages estimated at US$ 400 million in these countries. The member states of MRC expressed deep concern about this flood as it reached extremely high water level. The flood of 2000 was more serious than previously recorded in Cambodia, when severe flooding in the area occurred in 1961, 1966, 1978, 1984, 1991, and 1996.

There is also serious concern that rural to urban migration, changes in land use, environmental degradation and the increasing frequency of extreme climate event called La Nina (cold episode) will result to worsening and more frequent damaging floods in Cambodia. Yet, flood is not the only type of disaster that has potential of affecting the socio economic lives of the Cambodian people. Severe droughts had occurred in the past and will likely to continue due to underdeveloped water resource management facilities, environmental degradation and the recurring El Nino (warm episode) -extreme climate event. Epidemics, settlements and forest fires, storms, landslides are also likely to occur.  

In addition, the countryfs economic growth also results to unfortunate manmade hazards such as aircraft accidents, water, road, and railroad accidents, and industrial hazards.

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2-Disaster Situation 2001  

In the year of 2001, Cambodia is again affected by flood and drought, even if the country has not recovered from the 2000 disaster. Government's appeal, generous and sufficient donations were received from local and international donors and who provided donations on a timely manner. A potentially serious and damaging flood that may have affected Phnom Penh City was also prevented by diverting the flood flow to the city to open water gaps through cutting of the National Road Number 1 in at least three (3) places. The increasing frequency of extreme climate events has resulted to worsening and more frequent damaging flood in Cambodia such as those that contributed to flooding in 2001. Due to effects of storm and strong rainfall affecting Thailand, Laos, and China, including the very fast water flow from Yaly Dam in Viet Nam in to the Mekong River on 13-15 August 2001, Stung Treng Provincial town was severely affected by flood at a level that we have not seen before. On the other hand, due to strong rains in Phnom Penh and in some areas in the country and the fact that waterways are narrower downstream, the water flowed down very slowly. Some districts in the Kandal, Prey Veng, Svay Rieng, and Kompot Provinces, located near the Viet Nam border, have high flood level above the danger level for a longer period of time, a condition that was not earlier anticipated. On July and October 2001, some districts of Kampong Speu Province such as Kandal Stung, and Ang Snourl district were heavily affected by flood, due to rain in the areas of Oral Mountains and the very fast water flow in to the Prek Thnot River. The flood has also damaged crops, especially along the Prek Tnot River

While vast numbers of areas were flooded in 2001, some areas in Cambodia were also Affected of drinking water and household water use. In some areas, people could not plant rice due to unavailable rice seeds that were depleted during the previous year and when rain came by the end of the year it   appeared that the rice season would have been significantly delayed.

The flood and drought of 2001 had caused damages to so many social infrastructure systems, properties, crops, life, health of people, and animals. Disasters in Cambodia are therefore affecting the Royal Government of Cambodia's development programs especially those related to poverty reduction.  


 

Summary of Disaster Impact in Year 2001

Provinces/Municipalities: 14, Districts: 84, Communes: 595

Victims: 429,698 families, equivalent to 2,121,952 people

Affected population who had food shortage caused by flood: 192,284 families, equivalent to: 945,665 people

Affected population who had food shortage caused by drought: 132,711 families, equivalent to: 530,844 people

People killed: 62 (70% were children)

Houses destroyed: 2,251 houses

Total estimated direct damages is at US$36 million

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3-Disaster Situation 2002  

-Drought

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The disaster situation in the current year 2002 is cause by the lack of rainfall, especially in the key food producing districts and provinces of Cambodia . Until late this August, rainfall has not been sufficient to produce the expected rice crop production. Cultivation of rice has only been undertaken in an estimated 800,167 hectares, which is only equal to 36.77% of the planned 2,167,000-hectare land for rice crop production. This is much lower than rice production achieved during the same period last year 2001. In Kampong Speu, Takeo and other provinces, the drought severely affected 51 districts amongst 185 districts or 551 communes amongst 1,621 communes throughout the country.

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-Flood  

Simultaneously, the provinces located along Mekong and Prassac Rivers are now being affected by flood due to heavy rainfalls in the northeastern parts of the country and the consequent effect of storms and rainfalls in other countries of the region ( Thailand and Laos ). These phenomena will continue to seriously affect the social economies and daily livelihood of the people.  

180802_flood_kratie.jpg (49319 bytes)

ͺ@The Samdech Prime Minister Hun Sen observed the 2002 flood situation in Kratie Province (August, 18)

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Summary of Disaster impact for year 2002

Drought

-Area affected: 8 provinces(43 districts)

-People affected: 442,419 families (2,017,340 individual)

-Food shortage: 154,069 families

-Productive impact:

1.  Rice crop: 134,926 ha

2.  Transplanted: 41,490 ha

3.  Seedling: 15,441 ha

Estimated direct damages is at USD 9million

Flood

-Area affected: 7 provinces along Mekong river and Tonle Sap great lake (41districts).

-People:296,234 families equal to 1,439,964 individuals).

-People evacuated: 24,244 families equal to 102,205 individuals.

-Food shortage: 94,922 families equal to 477,472 individuals.

House destroyed: 1,082 houses

Rice crop: 40,027 ha, and other crop: 3,186 ha

National road affected: 9 km, rural road affected: 767km

Bridge affected: 165 bridges. Irrigation damaged: 945 locations

School affected: 129, health center affected: 7 and temple affected: 55

Death: 29

Estimated direct damages is at USD 19 million

Total direct damages by flood and drought is at USD 28 million

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Typhoons in Cambodia

-In 1992, two (2) typhoons hit several districts in Phnom Penh City and Kandal province resulting to the destruction of some 500 homes.

-In 2000, a series of typhoons caused similar damage in 5 provinces of the country

-In 2001, six (6) provinces were hit by typhoons resulting to destruction of 743 houses, 6 school buildings and 2 temples resulting to 1 death and 11 injured

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Great Fire in Phnom-Penh Capital

 

Other disasters include Fires that occur in some of the major cities and cause extensive damage due to the lack of sufficient fire fighting equipment

In 2001, there were 46 cases of house fires that caused the destruction of some 3,316 houses, the deaths of 5 people and 20 injured

 

4-History of Disaster in Cambodia 1961-2002

Year

Disaster

Damaged & Affected

1961

Sever Mekong Flood
(reference from 2 years plan and 5 years strategy book)

Not available

1966

Sever Mekong Flood
(reference from 2 years plan and 5 years strategy book)

Not available

1978

Sever Mekong Flood
(reference from 2 years plan and 5 years strategy book)

Not available

1984

Sever Mekong Flood
(reference from 2 years plan and 5 years strategy book)

Not available

1991

Sever Mekong Flood and Flash Flood (reference from 2 years plan and 5 years strategy book)

Not available

1996

 August-October

Sever Mekong flood

In the 1996 floods, continuous heavy rainfall in China, Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia inundated the Mekong River affecting 1.3 million Cambodians with 600,000 hectares of crops and 50,000 homes damaged or destroyed
13 provinces were affected

1997

Drought-Linda Typhoon and Air Crash (Viet Nam Airline)

Death: 64

1998

Air crash

6 injured

1999

Mekong Flood & Cyclones

37,527 peoples of 10 provinces were affected, 17,732ha of rice crop, and 491 houses were destroyed

2000

August-October

Sever flood cause by Mekong River

3,448629 people were affected, 7,68 houses were damaged and 347 death

2001

August-October

Sever flood cause by Mekong River

429,698 families, equivalent to 2,121,952 people were affected
People killed: 62 (70% were children) Houses destroyed: 2,251 houses

2002

August-October

Mekong River flood and drought

Drought:  
-People affected: 442,419 families (2,017,340 individual)
Flood:
-People affected 296,234 families equal to 1,439,964 individuals).
1,082 houses, destroyed.
Death: 29

 

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