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COUNTRY REPORT

Kazakhstan

 

 Emergency Prevention Department

Emergency Agency Republic of Kazakhstan

 

 

 

 

The Republic of Kazakhstan is the young state – we are independent only 12 years. The country occupies 2,7 million. square kilometer of the Eurasian continent that deduces it on 9-th place in the world by the size of territory. Kazakhstan is subject to diversified natural and man-made disasters. That is why we are very interested in development of wide cooperation with the Asian countries on the widest spectrum of questions - including the field of the prevention and liquidation of emergencies natural and man-made character.

Kazakhstan shares its borders with the Russian Federation, Peoplefs Republic of China, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Republic of Uzbekistan, and the Republic of Turkmenistan.

Astana - the new capital of Kazakhstan - is located at the center of republic. The population of Astana is made over 300 thousand the man. Now in Astana there are Parliament, Government and other basic state bodies.

Almaty - the former capital of Kazakhstan - is located in a southeast of republic at bottom of mountains Ili Alatau. Almaty city has the special status and is largest cultural, scientific and industrial center.

The system of civil protection of Kazakhstan is young, as well as  its  independence. August 21, 1991 accordingly the Presidentfs Decree formed the State commission on extreme situations as well as Rule  about it  is authorized.

The Emergency Agency Republic of Kazakhstan is an independent central executive body and directly accountable to Prime Minister Republic of Kazakhstan.

Realizing all importance of protection of the population from existing on territory of Kazakhstan threats of catastrophic extreme situations and natural disasters, the President of our country Nursultan Nazarbaev has determined Agency as a state body alongside with other force state bodies providing national security Republic of Kazakhstan.

The agency carries out rapid response on large emergencies and disasters as well as control of technical safety in an industry, coordinates measures on their prevention, supervises over State fire service, organizes measures and provides functioning system of a Civil defense in Kazakhstan.

The laws of Republic of Kazakhstan and special decisions of Government determine functions of all main state central and local executive bodies at liquidation and prevention of emergencies. Thus, in our republic functions the State system of the prevention and liquidation of extreme situations, which core is the Emergency Agency.

The professional operative forces of Agency are constantly ready to performance of emergency works. Structure of these formations includes one republican and 5 regional airborne rapid – rescue groups, 25 specialized fire parts on suppression of large fires and conducting rescue works which also completed by the medical personnel and equipment, 332 fire parts of cities and areas, paramilitary, mining rescue, rescue at gas accidents, counter fountain groups, water rescue services, two military units of a Civil defense. For operative sending of the rescuers in the difficult of access and remote zones of disasters the Agency has helicopters.

By experience of foreign services 911 in 10 large cities of Kazakhstan the uniform dispatching services of rescue 051 are created.

Service of emergency medical aid in extreme situations of the Ministry of public health closely cooperates with rescue services of Agency. The Center of accident medicine and its regional divisions functions. In case of disasters these Centers are under an operative management of Emergency Agency.

First of all for rendering the international aid is planned to use Republican rapid - rescue group equipped with the modern rescue equipment and engineering. This group well has recommended itself at realization of rescue mission in Turkey after 1999 earthquake. The reserve of the provision and materials allows working to it  independently during 14 day.

The republican automated information-managing system on extreme situations including geoinformation systems and Internet - technology on mobile complexes and modern sites of a corporate network is created in all territory of Kazakhstan.

Last decade practically in all regions of the world the steady growth of quantity of natural disasters and their damage is marked. That first of all is explained by amplifying anthropogenous loading on biosphere.

The territory of republic is subject to risk of many accidents of natural character: earthquakes, mud flows, avalanches, landslides, floods.

The greatest annual damage is put to Kazakhstan by spring high waters, the floods of the Caspian sea and mudflows. It is supposed the creation of the specialized mechanized engineering groups for increase of efficiency precautionary measures, in each region of Kazakhstan. These groups will strengthen old and to build new dams, quickly to liquidate breaks through them of water during floods. Therefore experience of liquidation strong floods in Bangladesh, India and China is very important for us.

One of the five year in Kazakhstan is droughty. That year productivity agricultural  (basically grain cultures) on not pouring grounds quickly falls. But it does not result in famine of the people and destruction of cattle, because constantly reserve of the foodstuffs on a case of such global emergencies replenishes is created by state government. Besides Kazakhstan carries out humanitarian deliveries of a grain to the population of the neighbour countries injured from emergencies and political conflicts.

 For Kazakhstan the danger of droughts is that in the years their display quickly progresses transformation into desert of grounds. Area of deserts and half-deserts already occupies 66 % territory of Kazakhstan.

In droughty years amount of wood and steppe fires amplifies because of what the small area of woods in Republic 4,7 % constantly decreases. On the verge of disappearance Aral sea there is located on a southwest of Kazakhstan. For example if in 60-s' years of the last century the area of Aral sea was 68 thousand sq. km., now it diminish only 32 thousand. sq. km. The smallest elements of aggressive salts already lifted by a wind with dried up Aral seabed destroy fertility of soils in bordering to the sea regions. From earlier blossoming deltas of the rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya began migration of population. Elements of this salt already are find on glaciers Northern Tian-Shan. This global ecological accident has taken place in many respects because of mass expansion crops of cotton and fence of water for them from the rivers flowing into Aral. Now Kazakhstan reduces crops of rice and the technologies economical pouring of agricultural cultures take root. The crops of cotton in Uzbekistan are reduced. For accumulation of fresh waters of the river Syr Darya the crosspiece in northern part of lake is constructed. The states of our region create the International fund on saving Aral, which means are directed on scientific search of ways of the decision this problem and on practical activities.

Kazakhstan is ready to provide the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center all information about this accident in order to other Asian countries have taken lessons of this sad experience and the recurrences of such disasters have not admitted at themselves.

In Kazakhstan, as well as in many countries, the earthquakes concern to the category of the most dangerous natural phenomena. 650 thousand square kilometers, on which lives more than 6 million people and 40% of the country's industrial facilities are under constant threat of devastating earthquakes.

In connection with intensive production hydrocarbon raw material is quite probable the opportunity of development man-made or induced seismisity in western areas.

About ten destructive earthquakes two of which concern to a rank of global accidents for last hundred years has taken place in Kazakhstan.

On the data Kazakhstan seismologists, the almost centenary period of seismic calm in Kazakhstan comes to an end and the coming years it is necessary to wait in our territory earthquakes with the large destructive consequences.

Asian catastrophic earthquakes, having place per last years, (Turkey, Taiwan, India, Afghanistan) again prove necessity of decision the questions seismic stable construction and antiseismic strengthening not seismic stable buildings and structures in Kazakhstan.

 

There is a danger of occurrence man-made earthquakes in the western regions of the country because of an intensive oil production and gas. We need expansion of a network of seismic monitoring, its reequipment on modern, computerized means of supervision. In this direction the big help was rendered to Kazakhstan from the side of the Government of Japan. In this connection I have honour once again to thank the Japanese side for this support.

Scientists from Kazakhstan closely cooperate also with seismologists of China in the field of development of methods of the short-term seismic prognosis.

Taking a case, also I want to thank the Chinese colleagues and the Government of China for the technical help, rendered to Agency in 2002 as computers, videoengineering and a communication facility.

The Emergency Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan effectively cooperates with similar state bodies and forecasting services of the Kyrgyz Republic, Tadjikistan, Uzbekistan.

Using world experience in preparation for disasters Kazakhstan together with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) worked out and accepts by the Kazakh Government "Kazakhstan Natural Disaster Preparedness Plan". This Plan stipulates realization of the whole complex of legal, organizational and technical measures under the prevention of disasters in our country. 

The big problem for our country is preparation and retraining of experts, and also realization of scientific researches in the sphere of emergencies and disasters. After dossolution of Soviet Union all educational and scientific institutes on a civil defence and emergencies have remained in territory of Russia and Ukraine. The Government of Kazakhstan will accept the appropriate measures for liquidation of the usual situation. While we solve this problem by a direction of our experts in the foreign educational centres, including in the Asian Centre. In this case we widely use world scientific and technical experience.

Last years cooperation of Kazakhstan extends in the field of the prevention and liquidation of consequences of emergencies with the international organizations and the world developed countries .

So we try to participate in the actions, spent under aegis of the United Nations, the International Civil Defence Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Asian Disaster Reduction Centre and other.

Participating in actions within the framework of the NATOs program " Partnership for Peace" experts of Emergency Agency intensively master experience of the developed countries in the field of the emergencies prevention and their liquidations, struggle against fires, civil protection and civil defence, work with refugees, the organizations of operative interaction with other countries in case of disasters.

Annually, since 1997 in Kazakhstan the International Training Seminar of rescue subdivisions be held, in which rescue teams from Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Azerbaijan have successfully taken part.

In 2002 in Almaty city the First International Exhibition "Prevention, Rescue, Relief – EURASIA -2002h was conducted, organized together with the Emergency Ministry of Russia. The rescue engineering, the technics,  equipment and outfit, means of life-support, individual and collective protection, the equipment for extreme medicine, devices of the radiative-chemical and biological control were shown during in this Exhibition. Heads of related services of the countries of Community of Independent States, representatives of the International and non-governmental organizations, diplomatic missions, placed in Kazakhstan, have taken part in this exhibition. Also, colleagues from Asian Disaster Reduction Centre have taken part in this exhibition.

At the end of April, 2002 in Saint-Petersburg the delegation of Emergency Agency head by the Chairman Mr. Zamanbek Nurkadilov has taken part in the first Meeting of Heads of the state bodies, responsible for the prevention and liquidation of natural and man-made emergencies of countries - participants of the Shanghai Organization of Cooperation. During this meeting arrangements for the further adjustment of cooperation between countries – members of this International Organization  are achieved.

From time of finding of independence Kazakhstan repeatedly carried out the international humanitarian operations, assisting as food stuffs, building and other materials to the foreign countries, injured with large-scale emergencies and disasters.

Among them is an Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kyrgyz Republic, Russia, Tadjikistan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine and also Afghanistan, Iran, China, Mongolia, Poland, Turkey, Czech Republic, India.

In August, 1999 the Kazakhstan rescuers in quantity 20 person for the first time have taken part in liquidation of consequences of destructive earthquake in Turkey and rendering of the humanitarian aid.

To all of us, by virtue of a geographical position, initiation of large disasters more and more threaten to some extent. Only our close cooperation, harmonious work of our rescuer teams will allow quickly and in due time to come to the aid each other and to rescue lifes of tens, hundreds, thousand people.

Let me to express a high estimation and gratitude to representatives of the international and non-governmental organizations of foreign countries, who now are present at this hall. It is difficult to overestimate your strong support and the humane help, which you render in difficult time to national services of the various world states, responsible for the prevention and liquidation of disasters.

I would like to pay your attention, that the Emergency Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan is open for all and is ready to any cooperation. Fruitful cooperation and warm friendly relations effectively will allow to realize all actions, directed on the prevention, response and liquidation of consequences of disasters all over the world.

I once again want to allocate the big importance for us cooperation with the Asian Disaster Reduction Centre. Your efforts on promotion of knowledge of disasters, on management of them and reduction of consequences from them necessarily will bear the fruits and on the Kazakhstan ground.