@

VII .  Recent Major Disasters

 

     India has faced two major disasters in the recent past viz. Super Cyclone of October 1999 in Orissa and Earthquake of January,2001in Bhuj, Gujarat . The brief description of these events is given below.

 

1.   Super Cyclone of October,1999 in Orissa

@

@
A super cyclone slammed the state of Orissa on October 29, 1999 with a wind speed of 270-300 kmph, accompanied by torrential rains ranging from 400 mm to 867 mm continuously for three days. The surged to a turbulent sea surged to a height upto 7 meters, with waves rushed in and traveled up to 30 kms inside the mainland and the storm wind had penetrated upto 200 kms inland from the sea coast. The system, which was sighted by India Meteorological

Department (IMD) on 25th October, was intensified into a super cyclone at 0230 hours on 29th October,1999 . The system was stalled for 8 hours, 300 kms off the coast within Bay of Bengal and finally hit Orissa coast between Ersama and Balikuda (southwest of Paradip) at 1030hrs on 29th October. The landfall took about 2 hours. The diameter of the cyclone was very large (about 200 Km) and gale force wind speed of over 260 Kmph.

 

The rehabilitation and reconstruction work is going on and is expected to be completed by December 2002.

 

 

(a) Extent of Damage

 

S.No.

Item

Extent of  damage

1.

Number and names of the districts affected

14 out of total 30 districts 

 

2.

Worst affected districts

Jagatsinghpur and Kendrapara

3.

Number of villages affected

14586

4.

Population affected

18.97 million

5.

Number of children affected

3.7 million

6.

Number of children orphaned

1500

7.

Number of human casualties

8913

8.

Number of persons injured

7507

9.

Number of houses damaged

2.03 million (0.72 fully and 1.31 partly)

10.

Number of livestock perished

04.44 million

11

Trees felled (Number)

90.00 million

12

School buildings damaged (Number)

13443

13.

Road damaged (Number)

2688

14

Building damaged (Number)

26819

15

Boats damaged (Number)

Inland—10154

Marine--9417

16

 Nets damaged (Number)

Inland—20775

Marine--15211

 

 

   

 

  Setting up Orissa State Disaster Mitigation Authority (OSDMA).

 

OSDMA came into existence after the catastrophic super cyclone of October 1999, which hit the Orissa coast and caused destruction and death in fourteen districts of the State. The State Government of Orissa had set up OSDMA with the  objective:

Ø         to have an autonomous body exclusively devoted to disaster management,

Ø         to promote a culture of preparedness for different types of disasters and

Ø     to coordinate disaster mitigation activities including restoration and strengthening of infrastructure

(for more details please log on to OSDMA website (www.osdma.org)

 

2.  Earthquake of Gujarat of January 2001

@

@

A powerful earthquake measuring 6.9 at the Richter scale struck near the town of Bhuj in Gujarat at 08.45 am on 26th January 2001 . The earthquake caused extensive loss of human life and damage to property in the Kutch neighbouring districts. In the first time in India that extensive damage was incurred in urban centers besides rural areas. The cities of Bhuj, Anjar, Rapar and Bachau in Kutch district were very severely affected with a large number of building collapsing and causing heavy loss of life

  A damaged House

@.

 

 It was the non-engineered buildings in rural areas and buildings with poor quality of construction in the cities that collapsed, bringing into focus the need to create awareness on safe building practices, and to enforce safety norms in the construction sector.

 

The Government response to the earthquake was immediate, notwithstanding the difficulties posed due to collapse of communication links and affect on the administration and emergency services. The response was far more coordinated, efficient and effective than in the case of Orissa Super Cyclone. Lessons learnt from the cyclone experiences paid results in Gujarat and responses of the Central and State Governments, as well as NGOs were better coordinated.

 

The first phase of rescue and relief has been completed. The work of rehabilitation and reconstruction is going on , which is likely to be completed soon.

 Damaged building  

 

Extent of Damage:

·        Damage/Loss of Human Lives: Reported lives lost 13,805

                                              167,000 persons suffered injury

 

Damage to Housing:  

  ·        Fully destroyed: Over 2 lakh houses

  ·        Partially damagedh Over 9 lakh houses

 

Financial Impact:

·        Direct Loss: Gujarat earthquake estimate: Rs 153,083 Million 

·        Indirect Loss: Gujarat earthquake estimate: Rs 30,476 Million

·        Tertiary Loss: Gujarat earthquake estimate: Rs 100,670 Million

 

Damage to other Infrastructure Facilities:

·       Over 10,000 small and medium industrial units went out of production

·      50000 artisans lost their livelihood

·    45 sub-stations damaged/destroyed in Kutch and 7 in Jamnagar , Rajkot and Surendranagar

·      255 feeders snapped 

@

  Number of educational structures affected:

 

@

 A damaged building

@@Ø      Class rooms damaged/destroyed—49506

Ø      School buildings: 2267; is as follows

Ø      The damage to health structures: 4396   (Numbers)

Ø      The damage to dams and check-dams: 222 (Numbers)

Ø The damage to public buildings: 49506  (Numbers)

 

Setting up of the Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority (GSDMA)

 

In the wake of severe, earthquake of 26th January,2001 the State Government of Gujarat (GOG) established the Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority (GSDMA) on February 8, 2001 to inter alia  co-ordinate the comprehensive earthquake recovery program, to prepare programmes and plans disaster reduction as a strategy for long term disaster preparedness, to undertake research  and study regarding causes of losses due to disasters and suggest remedial measures for minimizing the same.,. (For more details please log on to GSDMA Wed -site  (www.gsdma.org)

@

@

@

back