II. Weather


1. Climate


  1.1 The climate of the country can be broadly described as a tropical monsoon type with four seasons: Winter Season (January-February), Hot Weather –Summer (March-May), Rainy Season- Southwest Monsoon (June- September) and Winter Season-North East Monsoon (October-December). The rainfall varies considerably from100mm in North-West desert to over 10,000 mm in parts of Assam . Similarly variation exists in temperature and rainfall, long coastlines and desert areas provides a variety of seasons and accompanied natural conditions often form a fertile ground for natural calamities like floods, cyclones, droughts, etc.




2. Rainfall


     Country receives an annual precipitation of 400 million-hectare meters, 75 per cent of which is received between June and September. The heavy concentration of rainfall within a span of three months in most of the areas causes heavy run-off and high floods. Non-availability of moisture over most parts of the year, particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions, renders 68 per cent of the arable land as vulnerable to drought.  The tectonic plates of Indian sub-continent make it vulnerable to frequent earthquake disturbances.