I. Topography


1.  Location

1.1 In the North, it is bounded by the Great Himalayas and stretches southwards tapering off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea . The main land extends between latitudes 8o4f and 37o6f North and longitudes 68o7f and 97o25f East It measures about 3,214 kms from North to South between extreme longitudes.  It has a land frontier of 15,200 kms and coastline of 7,500 kms.  It has also group of islands located both in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea .


1.2    It has common boarder with Afghanistan and Pakistan in North-west China , Bhutan and Nepal in North and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the East. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea.


1.3    The main land comprises of four regions, namely, the Great Mountain Zone, Plains of the Ganges and the Indus , Desert Region and the Southern Peninsula .  The Himalayan range comprises three almost parallel ranges interspersed with large plateau and valleys.  The mountain wall extends over a distance of 2,400 kms with a varying depth of 240 to 320 kms.


1.4    The plains of the Ganges and Indus , about 2,400 Kms. long and 240 to 320 Kms. broad, are formed by basins of three distinct river systems, viz.; the Indus , the Ganges and the Brahmaputra .  The desert region is clearly delineated in two parts - the Great Desert running beyond Rann of Kutch to Rajasthan - Sindh Frontier, while the little desert extends between Jaisalmer and Jodhpur upto the  Northern wastes.  Between the two deserts is a zone of absolutely sterile region, consisting of rocky land cut up by limestone ridges.


2. Area


2.1  India covers areas of 3.28 million sq. kms extending from now covered Himalayan heights to the tropical rain forests of the South.  It is the seventh largest country in the world and is well marked off from the rest of Asia by mountains and the sea, which give the country a distinct geographical entity. 


2.2  According to 2001 census, Indian has a population of about 1,000 million consisting of a male and female population in the ratio of 1000/933 .The  decadal growth rate is 21.34%.  The average population density in the country as a whole is 267 persons per sq. km.  The literacy rate as per 2001 census is  65.38 per cent. 


2.3  The country is a Union of 28 States and 7 Union Territories .  The Union Territories are subject to the direct rule - making powers of the National Parliament and the administrative control of the Union Government.  The States have elected Legislatures and Governments, which are fully autonomous in relation to the sphere of activities entrusted to them under the Constitution.  The States are further divided into Administrative Units called Districts.