Indonesia is subject to many different natural hazards as well as man made disaster such as :
Floods, drought, land slides
Geological disasters (earthquakes, tsunami, volcanic eruptions)
Technological damages Disaster
Indonesia as archipelago country has more than 17.000 islands and more than 5.500 rivers scattered all over the country.
Due to uncontrolled population, mismanagement in development, mismanagement in river exploitation caused floods during rainy season and drought during dry season almost every year in some part at the country and in some place land slides occurred.
Three earthquakes belts run through Indonesia subjecting the areas of Sumatera, Java, Bali, East Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, Sulawesi and Irian Jaya to seismic activity.
In Sumatera, shallow and most damaging earthquakes with magnitude of greater than 5 occurred about 15 times during the last 100 years.
Indonesia has 129 active volcanoes, 70 are classified as dangerous and 500 inactive ones.
Human settlements are often in or close to hazard areas. This is partly due to high population densities in some areas for instance in the case of volcanoes because of high vertility of the soil.
As tropical country with forestland number two in the world, forest fire are potential occur in Indonesia.
Forest fire not only cause environmental damage but also haze disaster where influence life and activity many people surrounding. Bad experience in the year 1997 and 1998 forest fire disaster cause haze not only in Indonesia but also some part of Asian countries.
Beside four groupfs disaster above, civil unrest are another types of disaster. In the last 1998 and 1999, civil unrest in many places of the country and East Timur Crisis caused many people killed, injured, inkind loss (housing, offices, church, mosque burned) and up to now there are still + 500.000 IDPfs (Internally Displacement Persons) where + 200.000 people are due to East Timur Crisis.
Under coordination and supervision from the government, humanitarian assistance from other countries, United Nations family, International NGO and privates from abroad are always give participation almost in all disasters natural or man made especially huge disaster.
In September 1999 up to now East Timur Crisis caused 284.000 people Internally Displacement Persons (IDPfs) where emergency relief such as food, medicine, shelter etc, came not only from the Government but also other countries and International Institutions dealing with humanitarian aid especially under UN family coordinate by United Nations Office for The Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA).
National coordinated arrangement for natural disasters was initiated in 1996 by the establishment of Advisory Board for Natural Disaster Management.
Its activities were still focused on emergency relief for
In 1997 The National Natural Disaster Management
Coordinating Board known as BAKORNAS PBA (gPenanggulangan Bencana Alamh) was established. As indicated by its name, the activities were still focused on natural disaster but extended its rule including represive and rehabilitative activities (during and after disaster).
BAKORNAS PBA was revised in 1990 and became BAKORNAS PB (without A), the one which is in effect presently with the following major consideration:
That the management should also include man made disaster and provide assistance not only during and after disaster occurred.
That natural as well as man made disaster must be managed before, during and after their occurrence covering aspects of prevention, mitigation, rescue, rehabilitation and reconstruction.
As an expansion and follow up of the implementation of the Presidential Decree No. 43/1990, in 1995 the Chairman of BAKORNAS PB issued a decree concerning organizations, tasks, function and job description of the board as follows:
Formulates planning of integrated, coordinated and sustained disaster management general policy and action programs.
Coordinated the planning of disaster management efforts, either before, during and after disaster covering prevention, mitigation, rescue, rehabilitation and reconstruction.
Prepares and formulates guidelines on the implementation of integrated and coordinated disaster management.
Coordinates disaster management supervision, control, monitoring and evaluation.
Coordinated the cooperation among governmental as well as non-government organizations in the field of disaster management, nationally or internationally.
Coordinates the receipt, distribution and use of assistance for disaster management.
Other disaster management tasks as directed by the President.
In 1998 The Coordinating Minister of Peoplefs Welfare and Poverty Alleviation, expand disaster activities as one of the main task in this ministry.
It means strategy and policy all disaster management activities belongs to this ministry.
To handle this policy, daily, Disaster Management Assistant to the Minister act as Secretary of the National Disaster Management Coordinating Board (BAKORNAS PB).
BAKORNAS PB as gfunctional organizationh still exist as an Operational Coordination Body. Under Presidential Decree No. 106/1999, September 2. 1999, BAKORNAS PB expanded its role to handle also another type of man made disaster i.e. gCivil Unrest Impacth
The National Disaster Management Coordinating Board (BAKORNAS PB) as non-structural organization chaired by The Coordinating Minister for Peoplefs Welfare and Poverty Alleviation (Menko Kesra dan Taskin) who responds directly to the President.
Secretary of this Board is Disaster Management Assistant to this Ministry.
At the National level almost all minister in the Cabinet are BAKORNAS member.
The establishment of BAKORNAS PB followed by the establishment of similar non structural institutions to cope with disaster in provincial as well as district level namely SATKORLAK PB (Provincial Disaster Management Coordination Unit) Chaired by Governor/Provincial Head and SATLAK PB (District Disaster Management Implementing Unit) Chaired by Bupati or Walikota/Disaster or City Head respectively. Non Government Organizations (NGOfs) dealing with disaster management activities are member in the Provincial/District level.
District units as the front line organizations can mobilize all related agencies at their respective districts, sub districts and villages as well as involve local communities organizations.
Strategy and policy coordinationfs in the aspects of prevention and mitigations activities handle by BAKORNAS PB Chairman/The Coordinating Minister of Peoplefs Welfare and Poverty Alleviationfs. To implement this activity each ministry dealing with its tasks respectively.
During disaster, in the aspects of rescue, emergency relief to be handle directly by SATLAK PB in the district level, SATKORLAK PB in the Provincial level and BAKORNAS PB in the National level respectively.
After disaster in the aspect of rehabilitation to be handle directly by SATLAK PB or SATKORLAK PB with line ministry agencies under coordination State Government. With coordination system as mention above all manuals, hazard map, risk assessment are handle directly by each Ministry in connection with their task.
The Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Kingdom of Malaysia signed an MOU concerning Disaster Cooperation and Assistance in Kuala Lumpur on December, 11, 1997. Both parties agree to promote and maintain cooperation and may request for assistance upon any occurance of any disaster in line with the spirit of mutual cooperation.
A joint committee on Disaster Cooperation and Assistance conducted a meeting in Jakarta in July 1998 and Kuala Lumpur on May, 1999 to discuss activities such as training, exchange of experts as well as technical and scientific information related to any disaster.
On September 23, 1999, BAKORNAS PB and Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) signed MOU concerning program for under standing extreme climate events (ECE).
The Management experiences of 1997 – 1998 El Nino and 1998 – 1999 La Nina revealed that direct application of global forecasting information at the local level passed operational constraints due to uncertainties involved in relating them in a micro geographical setting.
This program on various sectors is to find out whether or not correlationfs between these events and sectoral impacts.
All members of BAKORNAS can organize themselves education activity such as training staff, people participation training or public awareness campaign.
Education activities in connection with floods, drought and land slides done by Department of public work with Provincial/District level staff and other Institution such as Universities.
Geological disasters education done by Department of Energy and Mines, Meteorology and Geophysics Board, Universities etc.
Forest fire/haze education, in connection with operation/ activity done by Department of Forestry and monitoring, early detection, advocation done by State Minister of Environment together with Universities.
In 1999 BAKORNAS Secretariat organize Forest Fire Awareness Campaign and Training of Trainers "Quick Response Teamh (QRT).
The task of QRT is to formulize Need Assessment and act as Search and Rescue Team, just after disaster occurred.