1. BACKGROUND *
2. COORDINATION FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT*
2.1. Development of Institutional Arrangement*
2.2. Implementing Unit*
2.3. Current Issue*
2.4. Regional Coordination*
3. EMPOWERMENT COMMUNITIES*
Indonesia is subject to many different natural hazards as well as man-made disaster such as earthquakes, tsunami, volcanic eruptions, forest fires, flood, and also technological failures.
Three earthquake belts run through Indonesia subjecting the areas of Sumatera, Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, Sulawesi and Irian Jaya to seismic activity. In Sumatera, shallow and most damaging earthquakes with a magnitude of greater than 5,0 occurred about 15 times during the last 100 years.
Human settlements are often in, or close to, hazard areas. This is partly due to high population densities in some areas for instance in the case of volcanoes because of high fertility of the soil. Indonesia has 129 active volcanoes, 70 are classified as dangerous, and 500 inactive ones.
Many areas of Indonesia flood annually especially in the western and central parts of the country. The effect of La Nina is exacerbated by land use mismanagement in several areas. Landslides occur regularly during monsoon rains especially soft and unstable land of Sumatera and Java island.
Fires remain the most frequent disaster as indicated in 1997, Indonesia experiencing a wide and uncontrolled forest and land fires. The resulting haze affected almost 20 million people on the islands of Kalimantan and Sumatera and in the neighbouring countries of Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam.
The following Table shows the recapitulation of victims and damages caused by disasters during 1993/1994 to 1997/1998.
National coordinated arrangement for natural disasters was initiated in 1966 by the establishment of Advisory Board for Natural Disaster Management, its activities were still focused on emergency relief for disaster victims. In 1979, the National Natural Disaster Management Coordinating Board known as Bakornas PBA (Penanggulangan Bencana Alam) was established. As indicated by its name, the activities were still focused on natural disaster but extended its role including repressive and rehabilitative activities.
Bakornas PBA was revised in 1990 and became Bakornas PB (without A), the one which is in effect presently with the following major considerations :
As an expansion and follow up of the implementation of the Presidential Decree No. 43/1990, in 1995 the Chairman of Bakornas PB issued a decree concerning Organisation, Tasks, Function and Job Description of the board as follows :
The establishment of Bakornas PB followed by the establishment of similar non-structural institution to cope with disaster in provincial as well as district level namely Satkorlak PB (Provincial Disaster Management Coordination Unit) and Satlak PB (District Disaster Management Implementing Unit) respectively. District units as the front line organization can mobilize all related agencies at their respective district, sub-districts, and villages as well as involve local communities organizations.
The National Disaster Management Coordinating Board (Bakornas PB) is chaired by the Coordinating Minister for People's Welfare and Poverty Alleviation (Menko Kesra dan Taskin) who reports directly to the President. Main functions of Bakornas PB is coordination, consultation, and information.
Disaster Management, Human Resources Development and Poverty Alleviation are the main focus of the State Coordinating Minister for People's Welfare and Poverty Alleviation. The Coordinating Minister issued Decision No. 22 on Organization, Task, Function and Job Description within the Coordinating Minister and establish one Assistant who are solely responsible for Disaster Management.
Disaster management issue is one of major issues discussed regularly during Monthly Limited Cabinet Meeting on People's Welfare chaired by the President. One week prior to the Cabinet Meeting, a Coordination Cabinet Meeting on People's Welfare and Poverty Alleviation is held and chaired by the Coordinating Minister for People's Welfare and Poverty Alleviation. Related Ministers report on disaster management activities undertaken within respective Departments. One week before the Coordination Cabinet Meeting, a meeting of Permanent Working Committee, comprising Echelon I of related Departments, is held chaired by Secretary of the Coordinating Minister for People's Welfare and Poverty Alleviation.
Among others, the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and Government of Malaysia signed an MoU concerning Disaster Cooperation and Assistance in Kuala Lumpur on December 11, 1997. Both parties agree to promote and maintain cooperation and may request for assistance upon any occurrences of any disaster in line with the spirit of mutual cooperation. A Joint Committee on Disaster Cooperation and Assistance conducted a meeting in Jakarta in July, 1998 to discuss activities such as training, exchange of experts, as well as technical and scientific information related to any disaster.
Current situation as a result of monetary and economic crisis since the middle of 1997 has affected the whole country. The impacts has greatly increased the extent and magnitude of social problems. The grave situation has been aggravated by the occurrence of El Nino causing large scale forest and land fires, drought, and even famine. Economic and environmental losses have undoubtedly drained the country's natural resources making more difficult to sustain its development. Currently Indonesia is also preparing for the incoming La Nina that may cause floods and landslides in disaster prone areas of the country.
To deal with the impacts and related problems, strategic approach is to apply principles of the social safety net to disaster management.
Promotion of community awareness particularly those who live in disaster's prone areas has to be prioritised, so they can live, adapt and cope day-to-day with disaster threat. Empowering communities is conducted by optimising their own resources and potentialities, and by providing initial limited incentives to enable them to help themselves. Mapping of disaster prone areas in line with Disaster Information System are also important.
Funded by UNDP, Bakornas PB has been executing a project to strengthen disaster management in Indonesia. It aims to enhance disaster management capacities of the Bakornas PB Secretariat. Presently the project is focusing on completion of Disaster Information System (DIS). DIS is connected to Sikesra-Net (People's Welfare Information System Network), a home page managed by Indonesian Crisis Centre at Vice President Office. The Sikesra-Net can be accessed throughSikesra-net@http://kesra.go.id.
The Office of Coordinating Minister for People's Welfare and Poverty Alleviation/Secretariat of National Disaster Management Coordinating Board currently revitalises the Secretariat, encourages public for active participation, and launches public campaign in line with IDNDR program. These activities constitute anticipation for the possible incoming La Nina phenomena and forest and land fires.
Bakornas PB puts high priority to improve its performance and role, it also encourages international cooperation for better management of disasters. In the mean time, community empowerment approach will be improved as a part of Social Safety Net program particularly for those people living in disaster prone areas and enable them to know the types and risks as well as adapt and cope with disaster threat.