Geographically, Indonesia is located in South East between two Ocean which are Indian and Pacific Ocean. As a tropical country, Indonesia has fertile land with tropical forest on it. However in the last several years, many tropical forest regions have been damage due to the increasing land demand as an effect of demographic growing (The number of Indonesian Population exceeds 220 million in the year of 2000). As a result, environment quality is decreasing thus generates, or at least exacerbated the worse impact of natural disaster.

Indonesia is well known as active tectonic region. It consists of three major active tectonics plates which are Euasia in the north, Indian Ocean-Australia in the south and pacific plate in the east. The plate movements generate subduction type of boundary which takes control on volcanic arc building and produces Sumatera Island, Java Island, Nusa Tenggara and maluku.

World Seismicity: 1975-1995
The regions is seismically very active

Besides island arc building, the subduction processes also generate seismic active belt along the volcanic arc. Fortunately, shallow epicenter earthquakes usually occur in the remote areas with less number of populations. However in some cases major earthquake stroke dense populated region such as Bengkulu, Liwa, bali and Nusa Tenggara (Flores Island). Another type of natural hazards are generated by the tectonic activities are Volcanic Eruption and Tsunami. Some active transforms faults are well known as earthquake generator are The Great Sumatra Fault (Sumatra Island), Palu-Koro (Central Sulawesi/Celebes) Fault and Sorong Fault (Papua Island)

Indonesia consists of more than 500 young volcanoes including 128 active volcanoes. It is representing 15 % of the active volcanoes in the world. The most active volcano in Indonesia is Merapi which is situated 20 kilometers to the north of Yogyakarta. This volcano has been observed continuously by means of telemetric equipment as well as field investigation. Thus, volcanic eruption disasters can be mitigated very well. Many others have also observed quite well in order to minimize volcanic eruption impact.

The Distribution of Volcanoes in Indonesia

Other natural disasters which are generated by or exacerbated by human activities are floods, landslides, drought, land/forest fire. Those are believed as an impact of land or environmental degradation. In the monsoon, Indonesia is threatened by flood and/or landslides which caused loss of human life and property. On the other hand in the dry season, we are facing drought and land/forest fire as well as urban and building fire. Coping with those disasters Indonesian Government was launching a National Movement for Environment Rehabilitation Policy by conducting land rehabilitation and forestation. It was launched by H.E President of the Republic of Indonesia on January 21st 2004 in Gunung Kidul District where is known as mountainous infertile region which is administratively under Yogyakarta Province in Java Island.

Drought is another serious problem faces in the dry season between April and September. Government assisted to have priceless rice and other livestock. This condition also effects on hydro power supply due to significantly lower of water in many reservoir and forest fire. Those types of disasters are considered to be generated by environmental degradation due to deforestation.

Besides natural disaster, Indonesia is also facing man-made type of disaster. The nation of Indonesia is composed of multi ethnics, tribes and religions. This condition is vulnerable to the social conflict which is usually followed by setting fire and demolition of building or settlement.

Major Disaster in Indonesia in the year 2003

Floods and landslides were predominantly Indonesia's natural disasters in 2003. The global climate changes and regional climate condition were most likely influenced on those natural disasters. Human activities are also exacerbated the disaster. The regional integrated climate monitoring by means of climate data and information exchange will be very useful.

The major and worst disaster in year 2003 was flash flood in Bahorok (North Sumatra). It was caused 160 peoples died and many others are still missing. The disaster has been identified as natural disaster due to high intensity of rain fall few days before the incident happened.

The impact of flash flood in Bahorok, North Sumatra in Nopember 2003

Table 1. Disaster in Indonesia in 2003
No Type of Disaster Number of
Died Injured/
1 Flood 229 416 3,897 383,912
2 Flood and Landslides 43 130 94 71,321
3 Landslides 106 201 287 13,244
4 Storm 42 3 5 1,961
5 Land/forest fire and Haze 28 - 12,851 1,460
6 Urban/building Fire 91 26 794 17,282
7 Earthquake 27 47 300 2,977
8 Epidemic 42 308 15,683 -
9 Social unrest 12 1.038 872 71,277
10 Drought 25 - - -
11 Outbreak 7 - - -
12 Pollution 2 1 283 -
13 Technological failure 10 223 48 -
14 Tidal 5 - - 324
15 Bomb blast/explosion 5 16 149 -
16 Volcanic eruption 13 - - 1,722
@ TOTAL 687 2,409 35,218 565,480

Emergency Relief from Abroad Against Disaster

Under coordination and supervision from the Government, humanitarian assistance from other countries, organizations under the UN, International NGO's and privates from abroad usually give participation almost in all natural or man made disaster as well as IDP's problems especially in the large scale disasters.


Law and Regulation

There are no specific laws or regulations for disaster management in Indonesia. Each type of disaster covered by arrangement of disaster countermeasures is in the sector laws, such as:

Presidential Decree arranges Establishment of National Coordinating Board for Disaster Management. The last arrangement is PD No. 3 / 2001 and No. 111 / 2001.


Government of the Republic of Indonesia has established a national coordinating board for disaster management since 1966, the so-called TKP2BA (1966), BAKORNAS PBA (1967), BAKORNAS PB (1980-2000), BAKORNAS PBP (2001-present).

BAKORNAS PBP is abbreviation of BADAN KOORDINASI NASIONAL PENANGGULANGAN BENCANA DAN PENANGANAN PENGUNGSI (National Coordinating Board for Disaster and Internal Displaced Persons Management), a non-structural organization (board) for disaster management operating under and responsible to the President.

The duties of BAKORNAS PBP are:

The BAKORNAS PBP (based on Presidential Decree No. 111/2001) is composed of:

To support the duties of BAKORNAS PBP, it was established a Secretariat led by Secretary of BAKORNAS PBP.

Secretary of BAKORNAS PBP assisted by Vice Secretary and 4 (four) Deputies (Disaster Management, IDP's Management, Cooperation and People Participation, Administration).

The establishment of BAKORNAS is followed by the establishment of similar organizations to cope with disaster and IDP's in provincial as well as district level.

In provincial level, it is established SATKORLAK PBP (Coordination of Implementing Unit) consist of related services, chaired by the Governor.

To cope with disaster in the location, in the district / municipal level is established SATLAK PBP (Implementing Unit), which is chaired by Bupati (Head of District) / Mayor. The SATLAK compose of SATGAS (task forces) of the institutions and services concerned such as health, SAR, army, police, social, public works, Indonesian Red Cross (PMI) and NGO's. District units as front line organization can mobilize all related agencies at their respective districts, sub-districts and villages as well as local community organizations.

The Structure of Disaster Management in Indonesia as follows:

Total Risk Disaster Management

Strategy and policy coordination in the aspects of prevention and mitigations activities are handled by BAKORNAS PBP. The implementation of the activity, each ministry is dealing with its task respectively.

During disaster in the aspects of rescue, emergency relief to be handle directly by SATLAK PBP in the district level, SATKORLAK PBP in the provincial level and BAKORNAS PBP in the national level respectively.

After disaster in the aspect of rehabilitation to be handle directly by SATLAK PBP or SATKORLAK PBP with line ministry agencies under coordination State Government. With coordination system as mention above all manuals, hazards map, risk assessment are handled directly by each ministry in connection with their task.

List of Experts

No Nama Subject Instansi No. Telp
1 Dr. Ir. Hery Harjono Earthquake LIPI - Geotechnology 62 22 8757075
2 Dr. Ir. Harkunti P. Rahayu Disaster Mitigation Institut Teknologi Bandung 62 811238946
Fax 62 22 2503961
3 Dr. Nanang T. Puspito Tsunami/Geophysics Institut Teknologi Bandung 62 811238946
4 Fauzy, PhD. Earthquake/Tsunami BMG (Meteorological and Geophysical Agency) 62 21 6546311ext 5318
62 21 6546316
Fax 62 21 4246703
5 Ir. Erna Sri Adiningsih Remote sensing LAPAN 62 21 4892802
6 Dr. Paulus Agus Winarso Climate BMG (Meteorological and Geophysical Agency) 62 21 6546311
Fax 62 21 4246703
7 Dr. Krishna S Pribadi Disaster Mitigation Gd ALSI lt 2 Departemen
Teknik Sipil ITB Jln Ganesha
10 Bandung 40132
022 2510718, 022
8 Dr. Dwikorita Karnawati Landslides UGM - Yogyakarta 62 274 562880
9 Dr. Agus Maryono Floods/Hydrology UGM - Yogyakarta 62 811254254
10 Dr. Bambang Hero Forest fire IPB (Bogor Institute of Agriculture) @
11 Dr. Gatot Irianto Floods/Hydrology/
Center for Soil & Agroclimate Research
Jl. Juanda 99 Bogor
12 Ir. Engkon Kertapati Earthquake P3G, Diponegoro 57, Bandung @
13 Dr. A Djumarma Volcanology Directorate of Volcanology and
Geological hazards Mitigation
Jln Diponegoro 57, Bandung
62 22 7272606
Fax 62 22 7202761
14 Dr. Surono Landslides Directorate of Volcanology and
Geological hazars Mitigation
Jln Diponegoro 57, Bandung
62 22 7272606
Fax 62 22 7202761


The Government of the Republic Indonesia and Government of Malaysia signed MoU concerning Disaster Cooperation and Assistant in Kuala Lumpur December 11, 1997. Both parties agree to promote and maintain cooperation and may request for assistance upon any occurrences of any disaster in line with the spirit of mutual cooperation. A joint Committee on Disaster Cooperation and Assistance conducted a meeting in Jakarta in July, 1998 to discuss activities such as training, exchange of experts as well as technical and scientific information related any disaster.

On September 23, 1999, BAKORNAS PB and Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) concerning Program for Understanding Extreme Climate Events. The management experiences of 1997-1998 El Nino and 1998-1999 La Nina revealed that direct application of global forecasting information at the local level passed operational constrained due to uncertainties involved in relating them in a micro geographical setting.


Improving knowledge about disaster in all aspects is required not only for government official but also for the community. The better understanding on disaster management will significantly reduce the impact of disasters.

Promotion of community awareness particularly those who live in disaster's prone areas have to be prioritized. Empowering communities is conducted by optimizing their own resources and by providing initial limited incentives to enable them to help themselves. Mapping of disaster prone areas in line with disaster information system are also important.

BAKORNAS PBP has made a module to conduct a Basic Training in Disaster Management for SATKORLAK and SATLAK staff. It is also some training like Emergency Management and Contingency Planning (in cooperation with UNHCR).

Person in charge of the ADRC Activities

Name: Sugeng Triutomo
Job Title: Director of Disaster Mitigation
Division/Dept.: Disaster Management
Organization: BAKORNAS PBP
Office Address: Jln. Ir. Djuanda 36, Jakarta 10120
Phone: 62-21-3458400 ext 523
Fax: 62-21-3458500

List of Disaster related Websites

No Institution Website
(The National Coordinating board for Disaster and IDPs Management)
2 Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation www.vsi.esdm.go.id
3 Meteorological and Geophysical Agency www.bmg.go.id
4 Ministry of Environment www.menlh.go.id

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