Bangladesh

Country Report

1999

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Md. Shamsul Islam

Director General

Directorate General of Relief &Rehabilitation

Government of the Peoplesf Republic of Bangladesh

 

 


 

 

Contents

‡TD

1. Country Profile

‡UD

1. Major Natural Disasters And Their Impacts In Bangladesh

1) Cyclones

2) Floods

3) Droughts

4) River bank erosions

5) Tornadoes

‡VD

1. Disaster and Disaster Management Concepts

‡WD

1. Strategy for Disaster Management In Bangladesh

1) Internationally:

2) Nationally:

3) At Field Level:

‡XD

1. Evaluation of Past Experiences

‡YD

1. Achievements In The Fields Of Disaster Management

1) National Level:

2) Field Level:

‡ZD

1. Disaster Education And Public Awareness Building

‡[D

1. Usability Of The Internet

‡\D

1. Current Activities In Disaster Management

‡]D

1. Conclusions

Annex

Annex-I  A Graphical representation of Thana Hazard Indices in Bangladesh

Annex-II  A Graphical representation of Population Density in Bangladesh

Annex-III  A Graphical representation of Catastrophic Flood 1998 in Bangladesh

Annex-IV  A List of Major Natural Disaster in Bangladesh

Annex-v  Chart Showing Institutional Arrangement for Disaster Management in Bangladesh (National Level)

Annex-VI  Chart Showing Institutional Arrangement for Disaster Management in Bangladesh (Field Level)

Annex - VII  Composition & responsibilities of NDMC

Annex - VII  Composition & responsibilities of NDMC

Annex VIII  Composition & responsibilities of IMDMCC

1) Responsibilities regarding Disaster Preparedness

2) Responsibilities to meet emergency situation

Annex –IX  Composition & responsibilities of CPPIB

[RESOLUTION]

Annex-X  Composition & responsibilities of DDMC

Annex-XI  Composition & responsibilities of TDMC

Annex-XII  Composition & responsibilities of UDMC

 


‡TD

 

1. Country Profile

 

With on area of 147,570 sq. kilometers and situated between 20‹34Œ degree & 26‹38Œdegree North latitude and between 88.01 degree and 92.41 degree East longitude, Bangladesh occupies a unique geographic location spanning a stretch of land between the mighty Himalayan mountain chain on the north and the open Ocean on the south. It is virtually the only drainage outlet of a vast river basin made up of the Ganges, the Brahamputra and the Megna and their networks. Bangladesh has the highest population densities in the world with 847 inhabitants per sq. kilometre. The total population is estimated at 125 million with an annual growth rate of 1.67 percent.


 

‡UD

 

1. Major Natural Disasters And Their Impacts In Bangladesh

 

Bangladesh is one of the Least Developed Countries in the world. Bangladesh is prone to many kinds of natural disasters. Of these natural disasters, the most important ones to mention are tropical cyclones with associated storm- surges, floods, droughts, tornadoes and river-bank erosions. Besides these disastrous weather system the occurrences of earthquakes at times make significant impact both on social life and topography of the country.

 

1) Cyclones

 

Tropical cyclones are frequent in the Bay of Bengal. Immediately pre-monsoon and immediately post-monsoon periods are the seasons when cyclones and depressions form in the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh has the worst record of cyclones and storm surges in the world. They destroy crops, damage infrastructure, homes and vital installations, and cause widespread health hazards for the people. Storm surges create both short and long-term problems because the salt water ruins the soils. They occur frequently and in such magnitude in Bangladesh that they have multiplied the problem of poverty and seriously challenged the efforts of the country towards self-reliance. Occasionally, tropical cyclones also cause enormous numbers of casualties. The cyclone disasters in 1970 (300,000 dead) and 1991 (138,000 dead) are among the worst natural disasters in the world.

 

2) Floods

 

Floods in Bangladesh are a complex phenomenon. They pose enormous threats to the population, but at the same time, moderate floods contribute to the fertility of the land. Extensive river floods cause great disruption and damage to infrastructure and loss of crops. Floods indirectly contribute to the concentration of land ownership and wealth as small landowners are forced to sell their property as a result of flooding. Bangladesh has always experienced some degree of flooding. Apart from a few small hills in the north and south-east, the country is totally flat. Very little-of the country is more than 20 meters above sea level. In a normal monsoon, one third of its 22 million acres of cultivated land is flooded. Flooding is a fact of life to the people of Bangladesh and they demonstrate great resilience and skill in coping with it. Monsoon flooding, which normally affects about one third of the country, is regarded by farmers as beneficial. They have developed agricultural practices to make use of the floodwater for rice and jute as well as for fisheries. It is when flooding increases beyond the normal level when problem arises.

 

In August-September, 1988, Bangladesh experienced an unprecedented flood causing loss of 1657 human lives and again during July-September, 1998 Bangladesh experienced another flood which is the worst in the living memory both in respect of its long duration and water level. Almost two-third area of the country was inundated causing widespread damage to the economy of the country ever before. It took the life of 918 people.

 

3) Droughts

 

Bangladesh experiences drought conditions at some intervals of time. Records show that Bangladesh had, in the recent past, drought conditions having disastrous crop failure. In 1979 Bangladesh passed through a major drought year which was termed by many, as the worst in the recent past. Droughts of 1957 and 1972 were of severe nature also. Crop failure by drought comes as a significant strain also to the socio-economic structure of Bangladesh.

 

4) River bank erosions

 

Along the courses of the mighty rivers, the Jamuna, the Meghna, etc. erosion every year takes away chunks of land causing displacement of large number of people and losses of properties. Due to recurrence of such erosion displaced people are forced to come to cities for their earning. This adds to the growth of slum areas, scarcity of land in the cities and also create various social problems.

 

5) Tornadoes

 

Tornadoes cause localised devastation and demand an immediate response. A severe tornado hit Tangail district of the country on 13th May 1996 causing 540 death and injuring about 34000 people. Loss of cattle heads and damages to households were also substantial.

 

A Graphical representation of Thana Hazard Indices, Population Density, Catastrophic Flood of 1998 in Bangladesh and a List of Major Natural Disasters are enclosed as Annex I, II, III & IV with this paper.


 

‡VD

 

1. Disaster and Disaster Management Concepts

 

Internationally, the generally accepted definition of gdisasterh is: gAn occurrence arising with little or no warning which causes or threatens serious disruption of life, and perhaps death or injury to large numbers of people, and requires therefore a mobilization of effort in excess of that normally provided by the statutory emergency servicesh. To which one would add, it is gAn event which afflicts a community the consequence of which are beyond the immediate, financial, material or emotional resources of the communityh.

 

gDisaster Managementh includes all aspects of planning for and responding to disasters. It refers to the Management of both the risks and the consequences of disasters and includes:

 

The incorporation of preventive/mitigation measures into overall development plans and activities at all levels in disaster prone areas: this may include structural and non-structural measures to reduce the risks of disaster occurring and the consequences of those that cannot be prevented;

 

preparedness plan and related measures in disaster-prone areas and organize appropriate emergency responses, when necessary: this may include forecasting, warning dissemination systems, and standing arrangements for evacuation and the organisation of rescue, relief and short-term rehabilitation activities emergency response to disasters when they occur, including rescue, relief, short-term rehabilitation/repairs; and Post-disaster reconstruction/long-term reconstruction.

 

Disasters are of three types. These are -

 

(i)           Natural

(ii)          Anthropogenic (man-made)

(iii)         Hybrid disaster which arises from a linkage of Anthropogenic events and natural events.

 

Details of these are appended below in Table —1


 

Table- 1

 

Disaster Classification and Predominant Agent

 

 

Disaster Type

Natural

Man-made

Hybrid

Avalanche/Rockfall

Yes

No

Yes

Landslide/Mudslide

Yes

Yes

Yes

Transport

 

 

 

Air

No

Yes

Yes

Road

No

Yes

Yes

Marine

No

Yes

Yes

Rail

No

Yes

Yes

Climatic

Yes

No

 

Drought

Yes

Yes

Yes

Famine

Yes

Yes

Yes

Epidemic

Yes

No

Yes

Plague

Yes

Yes

Yes

Earth quake

Yes

No

Yes

Fire

Yes

Yes

Yes

Explosion

No

Yes

Yes

Flooding

Yes

No

Yes

Mining

No

Yes

Yes

Volcanic Activity

Yes

No

Yes

Miscellaneous

No

Yes

Yes

 

Disaster and its management are a continuum of inter-linked activities. So conceptually isaster management is not a series of events, which commences and then stops with the occurrence of each disaster. In fact, when a disaster strikes, two major setbacks immediately become pronounced. These are:

 

(i)           direct loss of existing national assets in various forms takes place, and

(ii)          there has to be diversion of national resources and effort from on-going subsistence and development in order to achieve accelerated recovery.

 

To deal with these setbacks there is an obvious need to develop a comprehensive approach to disaster management. For efficiency and effectiveness, comprehensive approach needs to cover all aspects of disaster management with appropriate balance amongst prevention, mitigation, preparedness, relief & response, recovery, reconstruction rehabilitation.

 

In the past, disaster management used to be viewed in Bangladesh as post-disaster activities i.e. response and recovery involving relief and rehabilitation only. Consequently, little had been done for alleviation from the impact of future disasters. This old concept is fast getting replaced by modern concept of disaster management for a comprehensive approach to cope with and recover form disasters.

 

 


‡WD

 

1. Strategy for Disaster Management In Bangladesh

 

The management of both risks and consequences of disaster is the disaster management, which includes prevention and mitigation, preparedness, emergency response and post-disaster recovery (i.e. rehabilitation and reconstruction). The Government of Bangladesh (GOB) is convinced that disasters costing innumerable lives and millions of dollars to the national economy can be alleviated with preparedness and preventive measures such as hazard and risk analysis, land-use zoning, building codes, disaster preparedness training etc. The need for the integration of all efforts to design a total disaster management strategy is now strongly realized at all tiers of the Government machinery.

 

Self-reliance of the community is the keynote for preparedness, response and recovery. This requires community involvement, which is, at present, encouraged for optimum coordination, best utilization of resources and protection of lives and properties against disasters.

 

Previously mitigation aspect as part of disaster management tended to be considered as structural mitigation measures or engineering solutions. There is now a growing awareness at Government levels that non-structural mitigation measures such as community disaster preparedness, training and public awareness, linked to micro-income generating projects need to be given a high priority.

 

A number of fronts have to be tackled simultaneously for proper disaster management and administration of the aspects mentioned above. It is, therefore, important for the Government to continue its efforts in the following directions:

 

1) Internationally:

 

International help and expertise have to be sought to develop appropriate programmes for preparedness involving awareness build-up, modem communication facilities, enhancement of institutional capacities, etc. International forums have to be used by the Government as platforms to draw attention of the world community for securing support of the developed countries in the fields of comprehensive disaster management and environmental protection of the country.

 

2) Nationally:

 

A continuous process is required to be pursued by the Government to review the existing disaster management arrangements in the country. In the process based on past experience and present changes, the needful, in phases, has to be done by the Government at national level for up-dating overall disaster management in the country so as to keep pace with time and catch-up with appropriate technological advancement.

 

3) At Field Level:

 

As efficient disaster management involves community participation, the Government needs to give priority on efforts for increasing awareness of the community, people and households regarding the practical ways of reducing disaster risks and losses. While formulating development programmes of the country, the Government needs to ensure that the disaster action plans are established in the most disaster prone Thanas and Unions with the aim to mobilize communities for preparing and protecting themselves, and also for increasing their own capacities to cope with and recover from disaster without looking for outside help.


 

‡XD

 

1. Evaluation of Past Experiences

 

Bangladesh has well developed institutions and procedures for managing natural disasters and has made considerable efforts and has been fairly successful in organising disasters relief operations but, this is mostly done on an ad-hoc basis rather than on the basis of advance planning.

 

The Emergency Standing Orders for Flood issued in 1984 and Standing Orders for Cyclone issued in 1985 list pre-disaster responsibilities for many Ministries and Agencies, and assign specific preparedness responsibilities to the Ministry of Relief and Rehabilitation, district, thana and union level authorities. Before these orders were issued, Bengal Famine Code, 1913 and Standing Order for cyclone, 1965 and orders and instructions issued by concerned authorities from time to time were being followed in handling disasters.

 

The Directorate of Relief and Rehabilitation was established in 1983 as an operational unit of the Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief. This Directorate has an officer known as District Relief & Rehabilitation Officer in each District and an officer known as Project Implementation Officer in each Thana. Through them effective and efficient distribution of relief goods in disaster times is being carried out. Moreover, Test Relief and Food for works, VGD activities, and rural infrastructure building are also being carried out throughout the year.

 

Establishment of 1835 Cyclone Shelters and 196 Flood Shelters in cyclone and flood prone Than as of the country.

 

Establishment of Cyclone Preparedness Programme (CPP), as a joint-venture organisation of GOB and BRCS. CPP with the help of its 33000 volunteers plays a vital role for disseminating warning signals, during impending cyclone and evacuation of vulnerable people from hazard prone areas.


 

‡YD

 

1. Achievements In The Fields Of Disaster Management

 

As part of disaster management for carrying out operational activities, there is a need to contain and operate a number of different components covering aspects such as warning, information management, communication, etc. The disaster management operation systems need to be capable of incorporating all these components in response to the threat. To be effective, therefore, the systems of disaster management operations need to be implemented as comprehensive and continuous activities not as periodic reactions to individual disaster circumstances. Keeping this reality in view, the GOB has given priority to improve the early warning issuing capacity of the concerned Government Organizations such as Storm Warning Centre (SWC) of Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) and Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre of Bangladesh Water Development Board. As a result:

 

Micro-wave links between SWC in Dhaka to Radar Stations at Coxfs Bazar and Khepupara have been established for real time use of radar echoes to bring about improvement of early warning system in case of cyclone.

 

Under bilateral agreement between the GOB and the Government of Japan replacement of radar at Agargaon, Dhaka, establishment of a new radar at Rangpur and a satellite ground receiving station at SWC, Dhaka are in the process of implementation.

 

There has already been a substantial progress in the expansion of flood forecasting and warning services (FAP-10) in the country under an on-going project with the Danish Hydraulic Institute as the main consultant. The project has been completed at the end of December, 1998.

 

Building codes, based on the analysis of seismicity in Bangladesh, have been designed for the structures in the country. The codes are under consideration at various stages of the Government for adoption as legal basis.

 

Based on the experience of 1998 flood, the Honfble Prime Minister has ordered that henceforth the planners should produce three kinds of physical plans, one for the cyclone-prone areas, another for the flood-prone areas and the other for the normal areas. She has also instructed to make the highways high enough in the flood-prone areas keeping in view the flood level.

 

To make people conscious about the impacts of disasters, International Decade for National

Disaster Reduction and National Disaster Preparedness Day are being observed on second

Wednesday of October and last working day of March every-year with befitting manner. Honfble

President or Honfble Prime Minister attend these functions as Chief Guest and deliver speech

highlighting the importance of the disaster preparedness, mitigation, awareness building etc.

 

GO-NGO relations in the field of disaster preparedness have been improved.

The GOB has taken up a number of significant steps during the last few years for building up institutional arrangement from national to the union levels for effective and systematic disaster management. These are:

 

Establishment of a disaster management organization under the control of MDMR named Disaster Management Bureau (DMB) in 1993.

 

Naming of the Ministry of Relief and Rehabilitation as the Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief.

 

Establishment of Council and Committees at the national, district, thana and union levels for overall disaster management.

 

Establishment of Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) at the MDMR for information dissemination during emergency period related to impending disaster.

 

The elaborate institutional arrangements in disaster management are shown as Annex V and VI.

 

The Council and the Committees are:

 

1) National Level:

 

National Disaster Management Council (NDMC), headed by the Honfble Prime Minister to formulate and review the disaster management policies and issue directives to all concerns.

 

Inter-Ministerial Disaster Management Coordination Committee (IMDMCC), headed by the Honfble

Minister in-charge of the Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief (MDMR). This Committee is

responsible for implementation of disaster management policies and decisions of

NDMC/Government.

 

Cyclone Preparedness Programme Implementation Board (CPPIB), headed by the Secretary, Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief to review the preparedness activities of cyclone. The composition and responsibilities of NDMC, IMDMCC & CPPIB are shown as Annex - VII, VIII & IX.

 

Disaster Management Training and Public Awareness Building Task Force, headed by the Director

General of DMB to coordinate the disaster related training and public awareness activities of the

Government, Non-Government and other organizations.

 

Focal Point Operational Coordination Group on Disaster Management, also headed by the Director General of DMB to review and coordinate the activities of various Departments related to disaster management. Preparation of Contingency Disaster Management Plan by individual department is also reviewed.

 

NGO Coordination Committee on Disaster Management, headed by the Director General of DMB to review and coordinate the activities of NGOs involved in disaster management activities in the country.

 

Committee for Speedy Dissemination of Disaster Related Warning/ Signals, headed by the Director General of DMB to meet frequently to examine, ensure and find out the ways and means for the speedy dissemination of warning/signals among the people.

 

2) Field Level:

 

District Disaster Management Committee (DDMC), headed by the Deputy Commissioner (DC) to coordinate and review the disaster management activities at the district level.

 

Thana Disaster Management Committee (TDMC), headed by the Thana Nirbahi Officer (TNO) to coordinate and review the disaster management activities at the thana level.

 

Union Parishad Disaster Management Committee (UDMC), headed by the Chairman of the Union Parishad to coordinate, review and implementation of the disaster management activities.

 

The composition and responsibilities of these filed level Committees are shown as Annex - X, XI and XII.


 

‡ZD

 

1. Disaster Education And Public Awareness Building

 

Of late, there is a global realization that non- structural disaster mitigation programmes must accompany the structural measures for reducing the loss and damages of disasters. Construction of cyclone shelters, embankments, dykes, etc. are no doubt necessary, but such structural; measures cannot by themselves produce the desired results unless the community as a whole of a disaster- prone area is fully conscious about disaster risks and the way for disaster preparedness and mitigation.

 

Training and Public Awareness building are the major components of non-structural disaster prevention and mitigation programme. The objective of Public Awareness Programme is to promote an informed, alert and self-reliant community, capable of playing its full part in support of, and in co-operation with, government in all relevant disaster management matters.

The community needs to know

 

œWhat Disaster will do?

œThe best immediate action to take, personally and by families and other kin groups.

œHow best to help other members of the community?

œHow to participate effectively in the disaster communication and warning process.

œHow to improvise shelter and sustenance until assistance is available.

 

The disastrous natural events like cyclones of 12 November,1970, 29 April,1991 and unprecedented floods of 1987 and 1988 attracted the world attention to assist Bangladesh in adopting non-structural measures against disasters. Creation of Disaster Management Bureau (DMB) in 1992 under UNDP and UNICEF assistance was principally intended among other functions to build widespread public awareness against disasters through training and non- formal education. With the formation of Disaster Management Committees at national and field levels, there had been a crying need to train up the members of these committees in disaster related matters. Incidentally, these committees not only consists of the officials of the government and semi-government departments but also NGO officials, public representatives, local leaders, teachers and other cross- sections of people. So for DMB trained about 17000 people through 225 training courses.

 

Besides DMB has supported holding of Disaster Management Training Workshops in other institutes as well. In a recent month, Bangladesh Public Administration Training Centre (BPATC) arranged a senior-level workshop on Disaster Management with the financial support of UNICEF of through 0MB. With the approval of MDMR, DMB has been arranging financial support for in-service training programmes on disaster management in major training institutes.

 

Besides training on disaster management, 0MB under the guidance of MDMR has preformed, inter-alia, the following public awareness activities:

 

Publishing booklets in Bengali on:

 

œPublic information about cyclone/tidal bore

œPublic information about flood

œOutline of Thana Disaster Action Plan

œOutline of Union/Pourashava Disaster Action Plan

œPublishing Bengali Calendar/Posters each year depicting disaster points

œProcurement and distribution of Thana coloured base maps

œPublishing Newsletters on Disaster Management.

 

MDMR with the assistance of 0MB, Directorate of Relief and Rehabilitation, other sister organisations and concerned NGOs have been observing the following days.

 

œInternational Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction Day ( IDNORD ) each year on the second Wednesday of October as per United Nations Declaration.

œNational Disaster Preparedness Day on the last working day of March from the year 1998.

 

Besides government efforts, some NGOs are also involved in training and Public Awareness activities relating to Disaster Management. To mention some are CARE International Bangladesh, BDPC, CCDB, CARITAS, PROSHIKA, OXFAM etc. Disaster Forum is an umbrella organization for disaster related NGOs. Some of the organizations like OXFAM prepared some beautiful film strips on Disaster Management which are published through government media. There is a regular dialogue between Govt. and NGOs and specially in the Committee for Disaster Management activities with NGOs, Disaster Management Training and Public Awareness Building Task Force and NGO Co-ordination Committee on Disaster Management both headed by the Director General, DMB. These committees discuss and co-ordinate the GO-NGO programmes on disaster management, particularly, in the field of Training and Public Awareness building. In addition to these Public Awareness activities, Govt. of Bangladesh has introduced disaster management courses in Universities, Colleges and Schools.

 


 

‡[D

 

1. Usability Of The Internet

 

Disaster Management Bureau under the Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief will soon have a WEB page of its own. This page will provide various disaster related information to all user agencies and individuals. The information will include data on past disasters information on the most disaster prone areas of Bangladesh and risk factors, agencies involved in disaster management, DMBfs role as a focal point, topics on mass awareness, particularly on warning signals and preparedness etc. The MIS/GIS system of DMB will also provide limited access to outside agencies to share the data stored in DMBfs server over the network system.

 

DMB has a plan to facilitate the availability of Internet connection to other focal points. 0MB is now maintaining liaison through Email in the Disaster Management Units of other countries to share ideas and experiences.


 

‡\D

 

1. Current Activities In Disaster Management

 

Many of the disaster related matters fall outside the normal pattern of life. It is, however, possible to predict many such matters with reasonable accuracy. Others may remain unforeseen. As such counter disaster measures make heavy demands as administrative legal support. The scale of logistic and administrative backing in legal form is required for response aspects, such as debris clearance, survey and assessment, distribution of relief supplies, repairs of essential services, declaring a particular District or area as calamity area. This is also required for mobilization of resources on an emergency basis and requisitioning of various essential services. Realising this basic reality, 0MB as per the direction of MDMR has drafted the following Act/Plans:

 

i) National Disaster Management Act

ii) National Policy an Disaster Management

iii)National Disaster Management Plans

iv)Disaster Action Plans for District, Thana and Union levels

These are under examination at various levels and it is expected, will be finalized soon.

 

Necessary action plan for simplification of existing cyclone warning signals have been initiated. At present there exist 04 (four) warning signals for river ports and 10 (ten) warning signals for sea ports. The signals are of 200 years old and need to be made simple and understandable. So Government has set-up a committee to make appropriate recommendation for their improvements. The recommendations of the committee are under examination of the Govt.

 

Further expansion & Modernization of FFWC of BWDB and SWC of BMD are being carried out under specific projects.

 

Modernisation of CPP with latest and most updated telecommunication equipment is under consideration of the Government.

 

Construction of more Cyclone shelters in the cyclone prone areas are in progress.

 

Improvement of Information Technology in progressing fast.

 

 


 

‡]D

 

1. Conclusions

 

Bangladesh has a coastal belt of about 710 km long from Raimongal river to the west and Teknaf to the Southeast. Almost the entire coastal belt is exposed to the potential danger of cyclone with associated storm- surge. While the country has a vast flood plains where flooding during SW monsoon from June to September is an annual occurrence. In extreme events (as in 1998) the flooding covers upto three-fourth of the land area. To alleviate the impacts of flooding, embankments have been constructed along certain river reaches as structural preparedness measures. Similarly to cope with cyclones, for eventual evacuation of people from risk areas, 1835 cyclone shelters have so far been constructed in the high risk areas of the coastal belt. As comprehensive control of the natural hazards most frequent to Bangladesh is not possible, the Government of Bangladesh have been continuously making endeavor to make disaster counter measures under the total Disaster Management Plan as sufficient as possible to ensure sustainable development of the country as a whole. Such efforts have proved to be effective in minimising human death toll significantly and mitigating sufferings of the people. The systems of warning for cyclone, flood and drought is in continuous process of evolution borne out of experience, research and study for further improvement.

 

Nevertheless, improved performance in coping with disaster under national disaster management plan is a task which is difficult without international collaboration including resource mobilisation in terms of technological and financial help. This requires a break- through in the field of technology which can be used for disaster management profitably. There have been remarkable advances in the areas of communications, remote sensing and computing capabilities in the field of sharing information. These need to be harnessed for use to help the disaster managers. Disaster managers of the developing member countries will have significant benefit if their communication services are linked with an effective early warning and response system.

 

Based on these realities and also on the existing facilities in Bangladesh for Disaster Management, the following proposals deserve consideration by the ADRC:

 

œ      ADRC should have a satellite based internet and internet facilities having two way easy communications with shared nominal charge like GTS of WMO for use by the Member States in handling disasters.

œ        Satellite based radio/television broadcast may be undertaken by ADRC for use in coping with disaster s~tuaions and awareness build-up.

œ        The strength of ADRC will be as good as the weakest links in the net work that exists. These weaknesses are the big gaps that hinder quick communications between developed and developing member states. The issue of bridging these gaps has to be addressed by the ADRC with priority.

œ        The ADRC should have a built-in concept of helping the vulnerable people at a cost that they themselves or their Government can easily bear and at the same time making them self-reliant in their efforts and objectives.

œ        The ADRC should help the developing Member states in their efforts to systematically promoting and developing preparedness at all levels including a massive efforts at:

 

¨           Public education and training;

¨           building local level community capacities;

¨           developing specific expertise and management systems; and (exchange of information and resource persons.)

 

The ADRC may establish a policy forum of the Asian Countries at which consultation on programmatic issues on disasters can be discussed and action plans worked out.

 

The ADRC may also take initiative in -

 

œdevelopment of basic institutional arrangements for disaster management;

œcommunity disaster preparedness;

œdisaster vulnerability reduction strategies for sustainable development amongst its member countries; and

œImprove technological data-base.

 

 


Annex

Annex-I  A Graphical representation of Thana Hazard Indices in Bangladesh

 

FigureFIHANA HAZARD INDICES IN BANGLADESH

 

 


Annex-II  A Graphical representation of Population Density in Bangladesh

 

 

FigureFPOPULATION DENSITY IN BANGLADESH

 

 


Annex-III  A Graphical representation of Catastrophic Flood 1998 in Bangladesh

 

 

FigureFCATASTROPHIC FLOOD 1998 IN BANGLADESH

 

 

 

 


Annex-IV  A List of Major Natural Disaster in Bangladesh

 

Major Natural Disaster in Bangladesh

 

Year

Type of Disaster

Death

1876

Cyclone

100,000

1885

Floods(Rajshahi/Dinajpur)

+

1892

Floods(RangpurlDinajpur)

+

1896-97

Drought

+

1897

Earthquake

+

1897

Cyclone

+

1898

Cyclone

1,75,000

1906-7

Floods in East Bengal

+

1901

Cyclone

+

1909

Cyclone (2)

+

1911

Cyclone

+

1917

Cyclone

+

1918

Earth uake

+

1918

Floods

+

1919

Cyclone

+

1922

Cyclone

+

1922

Floods

+

1923

Cyclone

+

1926

Cyclone

+

1936

Cyclone

+

1941

Cyclone

+

1942

Cyclone

+

1943-44

Drought, Irregular rain, Transport dislocation & War, Including West Bengal

3,00,000

1947

Earthquake

+

1950

Earthquake

+

1954

Earthquake

+

1955

Floods

+

1957

Earthquake

+

1960

Cyclone (2)

11,149

1961

Cyclone

11,468

1963

Cyclone

11,520

1964

Cyclone

196

1965

Cyclone

19,270

1966

Cyclone (2)

850

1969

Cyclone

75

1969

Tornado

922

1970

Cyclone

3,00,000

1972

Drought

+

1973

Cyclone (2)

103

1974

Cyclone

20

1974

Floods followed by famine

30,000

1975

Cyclone

5

1975

Floods

+

1977

Cyclone

+

1978/79

Drought

+

1981

Cyclone

2

1982

Drought

+

1983

Cyclone (2)

343

1984

Floods

+

1984

Cyclone

+

1985

Cyclone

11,069

1986

Cyclone

14

1987

Floods

1,657

1988

Floods

2,379

1988

Cyclone

5 708

1989

Drought

+

1991

Cyclone

1,38,868

1998

Flood

918

Source : BBS, 1990; Gp. Capt. Syed Ahmed 1986; CDL, 1992;

a; Kafiluddin, 1991; ADB 1991a; Mahalanobis, 1927, CR of MDMR

Note : + : No Data found

 

 


Annex-v  Chart Showing Institutional Arrangement for Disaster Management in Bangladesh (National Level)

 


 Annex-VI  Chart Showing Institutional Arrangement for Disaster Management in Bangladesh (Field Level)


Annex - VII  Composition & responsibilities of NDMC

 


National Disaster Management Council

 

 

I

Prime Minister

Chairman

II

Minister, Ministry of Water Resources

Member

Ill

Minister, Ministry of Finance

V

IV

Minister, Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development & Cooperatives

V

V

Minister, Ministry of Communications

V

VI

Minister, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

V

VII

Minister, Ministry of Home Affairs

V

VIII

Minister, Ministry of Food

V

IX

Minister, Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief

V

X

Minister, Ministry of Agriculture

V

XI

Minister, Ministry of Shipping

V

XII

Chief of Staff, Army

V

XIII

Chief of Staff, Navy

V

XIV

Chief of Staff, Air Force

V

XV

Cabinet Secretary

Member-Secretary

XVI

Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister

Member

XVII

Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture

V

XVIII

Secretary, Ministry of Finance

V

XIX

Secretary, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

V

XX

Secretary, Ministry of Home Affairs

V

XXI

Secretary, Ministry of Defence

V

XXII

Secretary, Ministry of Local Government

V

XXIII

Secretary, Ministry of Roads and Railways

V

XXIV

Secretary, Ministry of Shipping

V

XXV

Secretary, Jamuna Bridge Division

V

XXVI

Secretary, Ministry of Water Resources

V

XXVII

Secretary, Ministry of Food

V

XXVIII

Secretary, Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief

V

XXIX

Secretary, Ministry of Information

V

XXX

Member, Socio-Economic Infrastructure, Planning Commission

V

XXXI

Principal Staff Officer, Armed Services Division

V

 

The Council will meet at least twice in a year (Vfide notification of the Cabinet Division No. MP Commi-1/Committee-2/93-141 dated 13th October 1993).


 

Responsibilities of National Disaster Management Council

 

 

œ            Formulate policy regarding Disaster Management and issue guidelines in this respect.

œ            Examine the recommendations of the Inter-Ministerial Disaster Management Coordination Committee (IMDMCC) and National Disaster Management Advisory Committee (NDMAC) and issue directives for their implementation.

œ            Approve the Standing Orders on Disasters and National Disaster Management plans.

œ            Ensure coordination amongst civil administration, Defence Forces and the NGOs in the planning process of disaster management.

œ            Arrange framing of law for prevention, mitigation, preparedness and disaster response.

œ            Take necessary steps after evaluating the precautionary/preparedness measures immediately with the warning signals regarding imminent disaster.

œ            Frame guidelines for distribution of relief materials and assign priority of steps during pre-disaster, disaster and post-disaster periods.

œ            Consider other related issues and dispose them.


Annex VIII  Composition & responsibilities of IMDMCC

 

Inter-Ministerial Disaster Management Coordination Committee

 

I

Minister, Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief

Chairman

II

Cabinet Secretary

Vice-Chairman

III

Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister

Member

IV

Member (Planning), Planning Commission

V

V

Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

V

VI

Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture

V

VII

Secretary, Ministry of Defence

V

VIII

Secretary, Ministry of Water Resources

V

IX

Secretary, Ministry of Education

V

X

Secretary, Ministry of Information

V

Xl

Secretary, Ministry of Housing and Public Works

V

XII

Secretary, Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources

V

XIII

Secretary, Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism

V

XIV

Secretary, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock

V

XV

Secretary, Ministry of Posts and Telecommunication

V

XVI

Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests

V

XVII

Secretary, Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief

V

XVIII

Secretary, Finance Division, Ministry of Finance

V

XIX

Secretary, Local Government Division

V

XX

Secretary, Ministry of Home Affairs

V

XXI

Secretary, Roads and Railways Division

V

XXII

Secretary, Jamuna Bridge Division

V

XXIII

Secretary, Ministry of Shipping

V

XXIV

Secretary, Ministry of Food

V

XXV

Secretary, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare -

V

XXVI

Secretary, Economic Relation Division

V

XXVII

Principal Staff Officer, Armed Forces Division

V

XXVIII

Director General, NGO Affairs Bureau

V

XXIX

Director General, Disaster Management Bureau -

V

XXX

Director General, Relief and Rehabilitation

V

XXXI

Secretary General, Bangladesh Red Crescent Society

V

 

The following officers shall attend the meetings on invitation: Director, Department of Meteorology, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Disaster Management and relief, Chairman, Water Development Board, Chief Engineer, Roads and Highways Department, Chairman, T & T Board, Director General, Department of Health, Chief Engineer, Public Health-Department, Director General, Department of food, Chairman, BIWTC, Chairman, Bangladesh Railwayf Director, Cyclone Preparedness Programme (CPP); Director, ADAB; president, Federation of Chamber of Commerce and industries; UN Resident Coordinator; Representatives of the UN Organizations; Chief Engineer, Public Works and Local Govt. Engineering Department and any other Expert.

 


 

 

Responsibilities of Inter-Ministerial Disaster Management Coordination Committee

 

œImplement the policy and decisions of the National Disaster Management Council. To monitor the disaster related plans for prevention/mitigation, preparedness, emergency assistance (Disaster Relief), and rehabilitation and to keep the Council informed of the progress.

œCoordinate the activities of the government agencies concerned with disaster management and evaluate the activities of the Disaster Management Bureau.

œScrutinize the disaster preparedness of different Ministries and Agencies every six months.

œTake steps for coordination of relief operations in post-disaster recovery period, and

œAdvise and issue guidelines for other related issues.

 

 

 

Responsibilities regarding Disaster Prevention/Mitigation

 

œ            Recommend to the National Disaster Management Council regarding the prioritization and inclusion of disaster prevention/mitigation projects in the National Development Plan.

œ            Determine the method of Disaster Impact Assessment (DIA) of large projects regarding their longevity against increasing disaster or damage during disaster.

œ            Coordinate preparation and implementation of disaster prevention/mitigation projects and to recommend framing of policy, fixing priorities and distributing assets in this respect.

œ            Arrange for increasing efficiency at all levels of disaster management activities.

œ            Monitor the disaster risks and their mitigation according to priorities in the national policy and their implementation and to keep the National Disaster Management Council informed of their progress.

 

1) Responsibilities regarding Disaster Preparedness

 

œ               Scrutinize the disaster forecasts and warning procedure and coordinate among the different agencies.

œ            Review the action plan of all disaster related agencies.

œ            Monitor the overall disaster preparedness programmes and inform the National Disaster Management Council (NDMC).

œ            Review the Warning System at local level.

œ            Coordinate among different agencies responsible for educating people concerning their duties during disasters.

œ            Ensure coordination among government agencies and NGOs responsible for imparting training on disaster management.

œ            Ensure rapid supply of additional equipment/materials to places where telecommunication has been disrupted on account of disaster.

œ            Ensure quick assessment of damage due to disaster and the quality of reconstruction work.

 

2) Responsibilities to meet emergency situation

 

Alert/Warning Stage

 

~e   Ensure that warning signals reach all concerned officials, agencies and mass media.

 

Disaster Stage

 

~-     Depute additional manpower to disaster affected areas in aid of administration.

e  Send members of the Defence Services with assigned duties for communications and essential services.

g-     Determine priority and issue instructions regarding relief materials, funds and transports.


Annex –IX  Composition & responsibilities of CPPIB

 

[RESOLUTION]

 

No. VII, F.A. 115/72/326-ReIief-26th June, 1973—Whereas the League of Red Cross Societies who initiated Cyclone Preparedness Programme in 1966 and have been containing it still have decided to withdraw from the field with effect from 1st July, 1973;

 

Whereas It is considered by Government that the Programme is basic to human survival and development of the coastal region; and whereas it has been decided that the programme will continue to operate as Cyclone Preparedness Programme of the Bangladesh will continue to operate as Cyclone Preparedness Programme of Bangladesh Red Cross Society In collaboration with the Government of Bangladesh;

 

Now, therefore, for proper administration and implementation of the programme, Government is pleased to constitute a high powered committee titled gPolicy Committeeh with the following to work as Governing Body of the Programme:-

Chairmen

(1)          Minister for Relief and Rehabilitation

Vice-Chairmen

(2)          Minister for Local Government, Rural Development and Co-operatives,

(3)          Chairman, Bangladesh Red Cross Society,

Members

(4) Member I, Planning Commission.

(5) Two representatives to be nominated by the Chairman, Bangladesh Red Cross Society.

(6) Secretary, Ministry of Relief and Rehabilitation—Member-Secretary.

 

Government is also pleased to constitute a Board to be known as gImplementation Boardh with the following for effective Implementation of the Programme:

Chairmen

(1) Secretary, Ministry of Relief and Rehabilitation

Members

(2) Secretary, Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Co-operatives.

(3) Secretary - General, Bangladesh Red Cross Society.

(4) Director, Integrated Rural Development Project

(5) A representative of the Director-General, Rural Housing.

(6) A representative of the Ministry of Finance.

(7) Projects Co-ordinator, Cyclone Reconstruction-of the Planning Commission.

(8) Two representatives as nominated by the Chairman, Bangladesh Red Cross  Society.

(9) A representative of the League of Red Cross Societies (if applicable).

(10)        Director, Cyclone Preparedness Programme of Bangladesh Red Cross Society-Member-Secretary.

 

The ePolicy Committeef will give policy directives and guide-lines to the eImplementation Boardf for effective and other resources for the programme placing them at the disposal of the eImplementation Boardf.

 

The function of the Implementation Board will be as follows

(a)          To determine and recommend frame and content of the programme.

(b)                    To supervise the implementation of the programme.

(c)                     To administer all resources of the programme placed at the disposal of the Board by the gPolicy Committeeh.

(d)                    To approve all expenditure incurred on behalf of the programme of coastal region.

(e)                     To determine priority and consistency with other related programme of coastal      region.

(f)                      To fulfil all other functions necessary for the effective implementation of the          Cyclone


Annex-X  Composition & responsibilities of DDMC

 

 

Composition of District Disaster Management Committee

 

I

Deputy Commissioner

Chairman

II

Representative of concerned Departmental District level.

Member

Ill

Thana Nirbahi Officers (all)

V

IV

Representative from Woman

V

V

Representative of Bangladesh Red Crescent Society

V

VI

Representative of Cyclone Preparedness Programme

V

VII

Representative of N.G.O.

V

VIII

Representative from Armed Forces at District level

V

IX

District Relief & Rehabilitation Officer

Member Secretary

Ail the honorable MPfs of the district are the adviser of the committee. Chairmen of the committee may co-opt more members under local & Special circumstances.

 

Responsibilities of this committee

 

œ            Collect information regarding damage & requirement of relief from thana. Pass on information to Dhaka.

œ            Make allocation of food grain and cash on the basis of paper allocation received from Dhaka among affected Thanas.

œ            Distribution made increase of cash through cheques favouring TNO and in case of food grain through sub-allocation.

œ            Also allocates other materials among thanas. These are either handed over to TNO or transported to thana head quarter by road/river.

œ            Monitoring & supervising activities of Thana Disaster Management Committee.

 


Annex-XI  Composition & responsibilities of TDMC

 

 

Composition of Tlana Disaster Management Committee

 

 

I

Thana Nirbahi Officer

Chairman

II

UP Chairman (all)

Member

III

Representative of concerned department al thana level

V

IV

Representative from Woman

V

V

Representative of Thana Central Co-operative Association

V

VI

Representative of Cyclone Preparedness Programme

V

VII

Representative of Bangladesh Red Crescent Society

V

VIII

Representative of N.G.O.

V

IX

Thana Project Implementation Officer

Member Secretary

Honorable MP of the constituency is the adviser of the committee.

Chairmen of the committee may co-opt more members under local & Special circumstances.

 

Responsibilities of this committee

 

œ            Collect information regarding damage & requirement of relief through UP Chairmen & UP Members. Sometimes thana level officers are deputed for this purpose.

œ            Pass on information to the district Head quarter.

œ            Allocation of food grain through delivery orders to UP Chairmen, or their authorized representatives take delivery of food grains directly from the food godown located thana head quarter.

œ            Allocation & distribution of cash through cheques favouring UP Chairmen. Other materials allocated and handed over to UP Chairmen. Monitoring & supervising of actual relief operation of UP Disaster Management Committee.

 


Annex-XII  Composition & responsibilities of UDMC

 

Composition of UP Disaster Management Committee

 

I

UP. Chairman

Chairman

II

UP Members (all)

Member

Ill

Teacher Representative

V

IV

UP. level Govt. Staff/Officer

V

V

Representative from Woman

V

VI

Representative of Cyclone Preparedness Programme

V

VII

Representative of Bangladesh Red Crescent Society

V

VIII

Representative of N.G.O.

V

IX

UP Secretary

Member Secretary

Chairmen of the committee may co-opt more members under local & Special circumstances.

 

Responsibilities of this committee

 

œ            Make the spot assessment of damage.

œ            Prepare list of affected persons.

œ            Pass these information to thana head quarter.

œ            Distribution of food grains, cash and other relief materials among the affected people in presence of thana level officer.