Introduction

Armenia is one of few countries entirely located in the zone of high seismic risk. Due to it the losses from earthquakes in the territory of Armenia in 1988-1998 are 94% of the amount caused from all types of disasters. There were 2028 emergencies in Armenia in 2003 including 1859 e.g. 92% of technogenic origin (wildfire, destruction, car accidents etc) and 169 e.g. 8% of natural origin (earthquake, floods and deluge, landslides, hail, frost). During those events 227 people have been perished and 1788 people have been suffered. Appendix 1 represents the catalogue of earthquakes occurred in Armenia in 2003. There were significant steps in the field of earthquake caused disaster management in the Republic of Armenia:


Armenian NSSP main tasks and goals are as follows:

  1. seismic hazard monitoring in the territory of the Republic of Armenia
  2. seismic hazard and risk assessment
  3. seismic risk reduction
  4. assessment of induced seismisity level
  5. assessment of secondary hazards caused by seismic hazard

The Expert Council established in Armenian NSSP includes prominent national and foreign scientists and specialists and is dealing with the reviewing and adoption the following matters of great importance:


Armenian NSSP possess the valuable Earthquake Catalogue of Armenia and adjacent areas as well as the detailed reports about the earthquakes occurred and activity undertaken. Since 2002 Armenian NSSP as an Agency was a part of Emergency Management Administration under the Government of the Republic of Armenia (EMA RA). The main functions of EMA RA are as follows:


The EMA Crisis Management Institute provides:

Armenian NSSP web-page is www.nssp.am and EMA RA web-page is www.ema.am

The pages is temporarily not functioning in the period from 25 January 2004 till 10.February 2004 due to modernization.

The ADRC responsible person in the Republic of Armenia is Dr. Alvaro Antonyan, President of Armenian NSSP, tel. 374 1 28-64-94; fax 374 1 36-62-80; Mailing address: Davidashen Massiv IV, Yerevan, 375054, Republic of Armenia.




The Stages of Disaster Management

The stages of disaster management are as follows:




Disaster Management National System in the Republic of Armenia

The scheme of disaster management system in the Republic of Armenia is presented in Appendix 2. The main goal of the scheme is population protection and its system along with subsystems is presented in Appendix 3.

Organization and structure of Disaster Management National System (DMNS) is stipulated by:


Major earthquake can cause national disaster for small nation.

In this case the government handles the disaster management and the regional (marze) and community (town and village) disaster management bodies are established under the aegis of DMNS including local authorities and representatives of a number of institutions namely Emergency, Seismic Protection, Internal affairs, Defence etc.

DMNS and its elements structure, staff, and tasks as well as responsibility are stipulated by legal and normative documents and government decisions.Below the tentative structure and tasks of the republican and community seismic disaster management headquarters are presented.




Disaster Management Community (Town) Operative Headquarters

The headquarters are arranged immediately after earthquake by the order of Prime Minister or Governor. The order provides the headquarters named staff, location and main obligations and responsibilities. Operative Headquarters are working round clock and maintaining meetings everyday. Conditions for headquarters effective work are provided and permanent communication with DMNS, government and municipal services are ensured. Headquarters comprise of 15-20 experts and representatives of state management bodies who are directly dealing with rescue operations and organizational tasks of earthquake consequences elimination. To solve problems mentioned below the special committees under the town headquarters are expedient to establish. Every committee should have clear and distinct idea about its main tasks, obligations and authority, and work timetable (round clock during the first month after earthquake).




Main Tasks of Disaster Management Community Operative Headquarters

  1. Assess the situation and earthquake consequences extent and provide operative activity for organization of rescue operations
  2. Organize the providing injured with immediate medical aid
  3. Ban the transportation entrance to disaster zone besides those of special purpose
  4. Organize people evacuation
  5. Organize the registration of unknown victims and burying
  6. Put a place law and order and fight looting
  7. Provide operative activities for earthquake secondary consequences prevention and localization.
  8. Get, allocate and install the temporary households such as vans and tents
  9. Provide the people with the necessary resources including dry and liquid fuel, warm clothes, sleeping accessories, food and water
  10. Organize the answer service for inquiries about the destiny of relatives and acquaintances.
  11. Make up the list of missing and injured, and dead people
  12. Provide citizens who have lost the passport due to earthquake with temporary identity.



Earthquake Consequences Liquidation Permanent Acting Committee under the Community Headquarters

  1. Committee on rescue operations organization
  2. Committee on rapid medical aid
  3. Information center
  4. Committee on victims burying
  5. Committee on population evacuation
  6. Committee on temporary shelter reception allocation
  7. Committee on earthquake consequences extent and situation evaluating
  8. Committee on a place law and order
  9. Committee on life-support



Republican Management Operative Headquarters

Usually the destructive earthquakes circle the territory of several administrative areas (marzes, regions, towns etc). Due to it the establishment of republican earthquake consequences liquidation headquarters is essential. The main goal of republican headquarters is the coordination of activities of different community headquarters with the aim at saving human lives and liquidation of earthquake consequences. The republican headquarters are formed by the decree of the President. It indicates the staff of headquarters, location and main obligations and responsibilities. The headquarters are working round clock organize the meetings several times if needed and not less than once a week. The headquarters are headed by the Prime Minister. It involve the ministers, governors and the Chairman of National Assembly etc.




Main Tasks of the Republican Headquarters

  1. Defining the borders of disasters zone, settlements selection by the priority of aid provided.
  2. Evaluation of damage extent and number of victims and suffered as well as other earthquake consequences in the territory of state
  3. Rescue operation organized on state level
  4. Organization of providing the injured with immediate medical aid
  5. Coordination of activities of regional community earthquake liquidation headquarters and providing support to local authorities of disaster zone and planning the actions after earthquake
  6. Definition the number of required specialists including rescuers, physicians etc. and equipment (first place rescue and medical ones) and amount of medicine and other materials and appeal to international organizations and foreign states for assistance.
  7. Allocation of experts including the foreign ones and equipment and materials in disaster zone.
  8. Organization of population evacuation from disaster zone to other regions and if possible to foreign countries
  9. Visa and customs easy clearance for experts arrived from international organizations and foreign counties and for material and technical assistance.
  10. Providing the assistance including food, water and shelter to the population of disaster zone at the expense of state resources and reserves, increase of life-support and preserving the essential resources including valuable equipment and materials
  11. Developing and organization urgent actions for earthquake secondary consequences prevention and localization
  12. Providing population and organizations with information about earthquake and current situation



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Appendix 1

2003 Earthquake Catalogue
N Year Month Day Time
in source
N. Lat.
E. Long.
Mag.
M
1 2003 02 20 10:08:24 41.20 43.88 1.60
2 2003 02 20 23:15:19 41.08 43.91 2.71
3 2003 02 24 21:52:01 41.13 43.91 2.52
4 2003 02 25 21:21:39 41.08 43.80 2.47
5 2003 02 26 23:13:39 41.22 43.92 1.45
6 2003 03 27 15:50:34 41.02 43.68 2.10
7 2003 05 09 21:43:25 40.98 44.34 2.00
8 2003 05 10 16:42:21 40.37 43.92 1.67
9 2003 05 15 08:41:24 40.25 45.80 2.48
10 2003 05 20 10:33:27 41.13 44.12 1.69
11 2003 07 30 05:31:21 40.10 44.12 2.23
12 2003 08 14 07:59:50 41.02 44.87 2.80
13 2003 08 19 14:05:56 40.67 44.30 2.62
14 2003 08 27 15:19:19 40.58 44.22 2.27
15 2003 08 31 14:08:21 40.28 44.25 1.75
16 2003 09 12 20:56:19 40.33 44.80 2.45
17 2003 09 14 09:27:24 40.27 43.65 2.85
18 2003 09 18 19:04:15 39.37 45.82 1.57
19 2003 10 02 15:41:58 40.85 43.92 1.70
20 2003 10 15 07:42:40 40.57 45.00 2.25
21 2003 10 27 15:46:13 41.12 43.98 2.16
22 2003 11 15 08:36:45 41.00 43.87 2.33
23 2003 11 17 01:57:42 41.13 43.53 1.66
24 2003 11 19 02:00:18 40.32 44.15 2.10
25 2003 11 23 09:43:49 39.02 46.32 1.44
26 2003 11 27 05:22:14 40.28 44.32 2.37
27 2003 12 01 17:25:52 40.32 44.22 2.14
28 2003 12 31 22:40:42 41.12 43.98 1.83




Appendix 2





Appendix 3




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