management in emergency situations
Protection Status in
3.1 Conception and strategy of seismic risk reduction in Armenia
Laws and regulations
Common Approaches to Seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment
Principles and strategy of vulnerability reduction of existing structures
Interaction of State Bodies on Seismic Risk Management
Public Awareness, Education and Training
Disaster reduction cooperation among Asian countries
greater part of
density of 110.5 per sq. km. The capital of country
there are about 350 types of natural disasters.
the territory of Armenia is peculiar about 110 types of natural
dangerous phenomena and only 11 of them represents as more usual and
dangerous for life and health of the population according to sociological data
during last century, in that number is earthquakes, floods, landslides,
rock-falls, mudflows, lightning, hail, ground subsidence and forests fire.
technological disasters divided to the following main types: accidents on the
hydrotechnical structures; accidents on the highly fire-hydro -explosive
dangerous facilities; accidents on the radioactive dangerous facilities;
transport accidents; accidents on the biologically dangerous facilities.
loss caused by various hazards in
Fig.1. Loss caused by
various types of disasters in
State management in emergency situations
In the country created and working
State system of the prevention and actions in emergency situations. The Prime
Minister heads the civil defense of the country. The direct management of
activities by state bodies in emergency situations is assigned to the Head of
the Emergency Management Administration (EMA) of the
- To establish and vest governmental policy in Civil Protection and enhance the country's
Mitigate the consequences of emergencies; prepare for
possible consequences; establish, provide and implement Civil Protection
Co-ordinate and organise Civil Protection system
Organise governmental expertise in solutions and
projects concerning objects and processes as possible causes of emergencies;
Organise government control over the secured
implementation of industrial activities concerning civil protection and the
utilisation of mineral resources;
Organise and implement preparedness in government
administrations, local self-government bodies and the administrative staff of
organisations, to promote stable activities in the civil protection system in
emergencies, and the training of professional personnel;
Participate, organise and co-ordinate rehabilitation
and rescue activities in emergencies and the invention of corresponding forces
for that purpose. Promote co-operation between governmental, departmental
(administrational) and public (volunteer) rescue
Organise and provide resources for international
co-operation in civil protection problems;
Organise and certification of rescuers.
The EMA has local bodies at the provinces (marz) of country as well as at the large cities.
Civil Protection activities are
regulated by a number of laws and legislative acts of the
-"The Law of Local Self-government" accepted in 1977;
-"The Law of Civil Protection in Emergency Situation" accepted in 1998;
-"The Law of Civil Defense" accepted in 2002;
-"The Law of Seismic Protection" accepted in 2002;
-"The decree issued by President of RA concerning the implementation of state-government in the provinces " accepted in 1999;
-"The decree issued by President of RA concerning Civil Protection structure activity organisation" accepted in 1995.
Besides mentioned legislative
documents the Civil Protection activities in emergency situations are regulated
by a number of decisions by the Government of the
Consequences of the catastrophic
Spitak earthquake of 1988 forced the government of
The first main step was the creation of National Survey for Seismic Protection under the Government of RA (NSSP RA), as a state responsible body for Seismic Risk Reduction Strategy development and implementation.
The second main step was acceptance in
1999 of two long-term Strategic National Programs on seismic risk reduction in
third essential event was acceptance in 2002 by the National Parliament of
“The Law on Seismic Protection of the RA”.
According to the law seismic protection is meant as a complex of legal, social, economic, educational, organizational, scientific and other measures directed to seismic safety and sustainable development of the state.
Conception and strategy of seismic risk reduction in Armenia
Seismic risk, in general, is probable human, material damage and other losses stipulated by strong earthquake for the given territory. Seismic risk is determined by a level of seismic hazard, vulnerability of existing buildings and structures, density of population, time (hour, season of a year) of event, probability of origin of fires, formation of the geological phenomena (falls, landslides, liquefaction, etc.), destruction, especially of dangerous objects (nuclear power plants, chemical plants, dams etc.), failure of life-support and many other factors.
The main purpose of seismic risk reduction is diminution of probable losses by increase of readiness, prompt and effective reaction to earthquake on the basis of improvements of a state system of risk reduction with involvement of all levels of authorities and society.
concepts of seismic risk reduction in
Uniform state and agreed interstate
policy in region Anatoly- Caucasus-Iran.
“readiness and prevention “ above “ liquidation and recovery “.
Equal priority of all the elements of
risk reduction in the sphere of “readiness and prevention “.
risk reduction on the basis of the state programs involving the state and local
authority decision-makers and public.
Internationalization of the state
programs on seismic risk reduction with the purpose of attracting the investors.
strategy of seismic risk reduction envisages solution
of the three primary tasks:
Seismic hazard prediction
Seismic risk assessment
Seismic risk reduction
hazard prediction is divided into two parts: the primary
hazard prediction (common and detail seismic zoning, seismic microzoning,
current hazard assessment) and secondary hazard prediction (falls, landslides, liquefaction,
technogenic failure, fires etc.).
rather reliable probabilistic map of seismic zoning of the territory of Armenia
in scale 1:500000 (fig.2) is now compiled, and a number of maps of detail
seismic zoning of 1:200000 scale (the territory of Armenian NPP, epicentral zone
earthquake etc.) are composed. For the main densely populated areas,
especially in the Northern and
Seismic zonation map for
On the basis of data obtained by the National Observation Networks (fig.3) the current seismic hazard is evaluated daily using developed in NSSP RA computer programs.
Fig.3. National observation network of
secondary hazard of strong earthquakes is evaluated for specified populated
areas, important and dangerous facilities, as well as for all the
Secondary geological processes
risk assessment is carried out both for separate objects,
and for all the
Seismic risk map for
Fig.6. Seismic risk distribution for Yerevan-city
risk reduction is carried out on the basis of two long-term Strategic National
Programs accepted in 1999: a)
“Seismic risk reduction in the
Laws and regulations
a legal basis for organization of seismic risk reduction activities in
a) “The law on Seismic Protection of the RA”(Annex 1).
b) “The law on Protection of the Population in Emergency Situations”.
normative documents, regulating organization of seismic
protection have been also developed. Some of them are as follows: а) New
seismic building codes; b) Principles of Seismic
Microzoning; c) Instruction on conducting of observations in seismic,
geophysical and other stations; d) The procedure of the expert analysis
and providing the information about earthquake threat to the Government of RА.
laws are the important part of preparatory stage and adjust the main operations
after disaster. Sometimes a question
emerges, whether it is possible to solve the problems of seismic protection only
on the basis of the law on emergency situations, since the earthquake is one
kind of natural disasters. For those countries, where seismic hazard and seismic
risk are low, such statement of a problem is correct. But for
The struggle against any
disaster is not so complicated and doesn’t require so much mobilization,
forces and resources, as against strong earthquakes.
The consequences of strong earthquakes
are not comparable to consequences of other disasters. The disaster
involves large territories and all spheres of life.
Seismic protection unlike
other natural disasters has features that require
specific and differentiated approaches.
3.3 Common Approaches to Seismic Hazard
and Risk Assessment.
For reliable hazard and risk assessment the following main tasks are applied:
Creation of a reliable and comprehensive
database for the territory larger, than the territory, for which the assessment
is carried out.
Assessment on the basis of modern
Hazard assessment for the
has created the certain database for an assessment of hazard and risk both for
Prehistorical and historical earthquake
Earthquake catalogues for instrumental
period (catalogues were checked and cleared from industrial explosions,
parameters of the events should be recalculated)
Focal mechanisms catalogue for
earthquakes occurred in the
Macroseismic database for
The waveform database consists of digital
seismograms, strong motion accellerograms. The records of large industrial
explosions and nuclear explosions have been digitized as well.
Database on geology, active tectonics,
and geophysical parameters
The following maps were collected and
their systematization has been carried out:
geological maps for
tectonic maps (age of deformation and
origination, faults, deep structure)
map of vertical movements for last
map of earth crust strain on the bases of
fault plane solutions and GPS observations (map of compression, map of probable
schematic maps for possible faults (that
is N1, N2 nodal planes) generated in the source of earthquakes
gravitational maps and maps of magnetic
anomalies of 1:200000 scale
Digital Elevation Maps for big cities and
bordering countries of various scales
Digital databases in GIS format for the
hazard and risk assessment is carried out using modern technologies. A large
place is given to probability assessment and compilation of probabilistic maps.
NSSP has a good experience of application of advanced technologies for
compilation of seismic zoning map for the
Fig.7. Seismotectonic-probilistic seismic hazard assessment map for Crimea-Caucasus-Kopet Dagh region
current seismic hazard is evaluated daily using the developed software on the
basis of data obtained from National Observation Networks that consists of 150
analysis of well-known methodologies of risk assessment showed, that these
methods will encounter problems due to lack of databases for different
components. Compilation of these databases is very expensive and time
consumable. NSSP has suggested simplified method of risk assessment based on the
main factors of risk: seismic hazard, vulnerability of buildings and population
density. For seismic risk assessment of life-support systems geological
phenomena (rock falls, landslides, active faulting etc.) are taken into account.
These works in
3.4. Principles and strategy of
vulnerability reduction of existing structures.
assessment of seismic hazard for all the
In 1994 the Seismic Resistant Building Code in
The methods of increasing of seismic resistance for existing buildings are
The programs of vulnerability reduction are developed.
Seismic Resistant Building Code has been developed taking into account local
peculiarities: seismic hazard, building traditions, ground and climatic
conditions, materials for buildings etc.
building code of
methods are applied for reinforcement of different types of buildings in
for use of traditional methods, new methods of restoring and reinforcement of
buildings are developed in NSSP. Already are well-known the methods of seismic
isolation of buildings and of the
upper flexible floor.
substance of these methods is the decreasing of possible seismic effects on
buildings. At present, the method of seismic isolation has already turned from
experimental single buildings to mass application. There are more than ten
multi-storey residential buildings in Vanadzor, Spitak and Gyumri cities, which
are built on rubber
bearings. In Vanadzor city five-storey stone building
of a А451 series has been separated from the base and stored on bearings
without resettlement of the inhabitants. The bearings
installed between the base and a building, damp the seismic vibration, not
allowing the deformation of constructions of buildings. In such a way it is
possible to reduce seismic intensity by 1 to 2 points. The programs for
vulnerability reduction of buildings are developed. In particular, the main
types of residential buildings in
3.5 Interaction of State Bodies on
Seismic Risk Management
to the “The
Law on Seismic Protection of the RA” three main unit
are selected on Seismic Risk Management:
local authorities bodies
government of RA approves: basic directions of state policy, state programs of
seismic risk reduction; establishes the list of the objects of the special,
significant and general significance, a state plenipotentiary
body, the order of granting licenses for seismic zoning works; realizes
other competencies established by the legislation.
state plenipotentiary body on seismic risk management: develops the basic
directions of state policy in the field of seismic protection; is responsible
for seismic hazard and risk assessment, and seismic risk reduction; coordinates
and controls the execution of the state programs in the field of seismic
protection; affirms the prediction of possible strong earthquakes both in the
territory of Armenia and adjacent territory; approves various scale maps of
seismic zoning and seismic risk for the territory of Armenia, and seismic
microzoning maps for dense populated areas, objects of the special, significant
and general importance; affirms expert assessment of special, significant and
general importance objects territories; organizes preparedness and training of
the population to withstand strong earthquakes; participates in operative
vulnerability assessment of buildings and structures with the aim of seismic
risk reduction in the zones of high seismic hazard; in due course grants the
licenses for works on seismic zoning.
local authorities in the field of
seismic protection: organize works
in the field of seismic risk reduction in
the territory of a community; provide works on
preparation of the population to
strong earthquake in the territory of a community; support executing of the
state programs in the field of seismic
protection in territory of community;
realize other competencies, established by the legislation of the Republic of
law on a seismic protection establishes the interactions of these three bodies
of management. These interactions are divided into three groups:
during preparation, in time and
after disaster. If the state programs solve the primal problems of the first
period, second and third stages are established by the law (fast reaction,
rendering of medical aid, restoring of a zone of earthquake, rendering suffering
4. Public Awareness, Education and
the society with improved awareness is able to prevent the heavy consequences
connected with hazard realization. With the establishment of two state bodies of
the government in
EMA and NSSP a "Disaster Preparedness and Management Course" has been
organized regularly both for population and governmental, regional and local
bodies. The course topics cover the subject dealing with the prevention of
disasters and reducing their effects as follows: types and effects of natural
and technogen disasters; hazard assessment; analysis of potential vulnerability;
disaster simulation models; implementation of public alarms; regional and
national planning against disasters, disaster management.
approaches are differentiated: the volume of the education increasing from elder
generation to young generation, from civil population up to all level
leadership. In the Appendix 2 were described detailed schemas of education
organization, which were developed and conducted by the Crisis Management
Institute of EMA.
the purpose of education and training conduction were developed and published
numerous manuals, booklets, posters, cut movies and video films. In the cities
and villages of the country were organized and conducted training courses, there
were established points of education for training of disaster protection basic
elements. Regularly were published articles by Mass media, organized cycle of TV
programs on different themes of readiness and protection of population from
disasters. Now we are conducting the works for education program preparation for
schools as a subject "Basic elements of seismic protection".
5. Disaster reduction
cooperation among Asian countries
Successful interaction of different countries during the
Spitak tragedy became a trigger in 1988 for many international projects and
programs development aimed to disaster reduction. One of such program has become
The very recent strong earthquake (M=8.1) occurred on
Getting warning from Armenian NSSP about
In agreement with Government of India, the Armenian NSSP
Task Force was placed in Ahmedabad city.
formal charge to the team was as follows:
-To provide scientific and technical expertise and
multidisciplinary assistance to the
authorities of the Gujarat state of India with respect to immediate
post-earthquake relief efforts
including: establish a temporary array of accelerographs in the different parts
of Ahmedabad city to record strong aftershocks;
-To provide rapid engineering assessment in such
areas as soil and structural performance;
-To provide with demolition of heavily affected
buildings and structures dangerous for public and built environment and provide
rescue, medical and psychological assistance to demolition team and suffered
The main outcomes of Armenian NSSP Task Force Mission
During two weeks of relief operations in Ahmedabad, the
following outcomes were achieved:
6 strong aftershocks of the Gujarat earthquake have been recorded in
different parts of Ahmedabad city, as well as ground geotechnical conditions
were studied for buildings and structures earthquake damage analysis, further
building codes design for current seismic hazard assessment and seismic
microzonation for re-assessment of seismic hazard;
140 (4-12 story) buildings were inspected and tested with conclusions
made in respect to their suitability for their further use;
- the unique
operations have been done jointly with Ahmedabad fire brigade for the decutting
and demolition of the 14 multistory, heavily affected buildings, which were very
dangerous for public and surrounding built environment;
the rescue, medical and psychological assistance has been provided for
demolition team and for earthquake suffered people;
the sociological studies have been carried out to investigate the reasons
of such consequences, through talks to local people to understand their
awareness and preparedness to strong earthquake, as well as their performance in
rescue and recovery efforts.
force group of NSSP RA successfully worked in zones of
of the epicentral zone and marking of the heavy destruction territories;
of the conclusion on ground conditions of the heavy destruction territories;
of the earthquake after-shock activity by SMACH;
with Georgian colleagues in the sphere of seismology, seismotectonics and
macroseismic data and outputs exchange.
were prepared and presented to the Georgian party the report on detailed
analysis of conducted works.
This law prescribes basics for organization of seismic
protection in the
1. The legislation on seismic protection.
on seismic protection consists of the present law, other laws and legal acts.
If under international agreement in the field of seismic
protection, established standards differ from standards established under the
legislation, the standards of international agreement are applied.
Article 2. The basic concepts used in the
In the present law the following basic concepts are used:
1) strong earthquake- an earthquake stronger than 5,5 by
protection- legal, social, economic, educational, organizational, scientific,
engineering and technical, and other special measures directed on ensuring
seismic safety of the state and society and its sustainable development;
3) seismic hazard- threat of possible strong earthquake in
region, shown by strong shocks;
4)seismic zoning- mapping of
possible maximum seismic hazard distribution in the region;
5) seismic situation- general
characteristic of current seismic hazard from the point of view of seismic
6) seismic risk- human, material and other possible losses
caused by strong earthquake;
7) seismic risk reduction- complex, various long-term
actions of the state and society (administrative, legal, social, economic,
tutorial, educational, scientific, engineering- technical, organizational etc.),
directed to the reduction of human, material and other possible losses caused by
8) early warning- notification on temporary infringement of
population natural vital functions, with the purpose of ensuring its safety;
9) seismic protection of buildings and structures- ensuring
of seismic stability of buildings, structures;
10) assessment of buildings and structures vulnerability-
prediction of buildings, structures behavior at strong earthquake;
11) task forces of seismic protection- specialized,
multi-profile formations in the field of seismic protection for rendering an
immediate aid to population at strong earthquake or its threat.
Article 3. The basic goals of seismic
Basic goals of seismic protection
1) implementation by a plenipotentiary body (hereinafter
plenipotentiary body) of unified state policy in the field of seismic
2) ensuring of prevailing of preparedness and warning
principles above consequences rehabilitation in the unified state and
international interstate policy in the field of seismic protection;
3) equal priority of all elements of seismic risk reduction;
4) involving the governmental bodies, local authorities
and society in the realization of the state and interstate programs of
seismic risk reduction;
5) internationalization of state programs on seismic risk
4. The work programs
on seismic protection.
protection works in the territory of the
The Program has complex character and consists of short-term
(up to 1 year), mid-term (up to 5 years) and long-term (up to 30 years)
The Program includes complex measures with the schedule and
responsible executives directed to the reduction of vulnerability of territories
to earthquakes and catastrophes connected with them.
As a result of the Program completion the forecast of
seismic hazard, seismic risk assessment and reduction are provided.
Annually, until May 1, the head of plenipotentiary body in
the field of seismic protection at the session of National Assembly represents a
report on conducting the works established by
seismic risk reduction.
The program is funded from the state budget of the
5. Seismic protection objects.
From the point of view of seismic risk assessment and
reduction, objects of seismic protection are:
1) territory of the
2) territory of administrative - territorial units of the
3) populated regions of the
4) governmental, defence, industrial,
agricultural-industrial, hydro-engineering (including reservoirs, dams), power
(including NPP), scientific and technical, health and educational institutions;
5) buildings, structures, immovable monuments of
history and culture;
6) systems of engineering-transport communication;
7) lifelines (gas pipeline, water supply and sewage).
Article 6. Classification of the objects
of seismic protection.
From the point of view of seismic risk assessment and
reduction, the objects of seismic protection are classified by their importance
The list of the objects by classification, in due course,
approved by the Government of the
7. Competencies of the Government of
In the field of seismic protection the Government of the
1) approves the basic directions of state policy;
2) approves the state programs of seismic risk reduction ;
3) establishes the list of the objects of the special,
significant and general significance;
4) establishes a plenipotentiary public governing body ;
5) establishes the order of
granting licenses for
seismic zoning works;
6) fulfills other competencies established by the
8. Competencies of plenipotentiary body in the field of seismic protection
Plenipotentiary body in the field of seismic protection:
1) develops the basic directions of state policy in the
field of seismic protection;
2) is responsible for seismic hazard and risk assessment and
seismic risk reduction;
3) coordinates works conducted in the field of seismic risk
reduction in the territory of the
4) affirms the prediction of possible strong earthquakes in
territory of the
5) approves various scale maps of seismic zoning and seismic
the territory of the Republic of Armenia, and seismic microzoning maps for dense
populated areas, objects of the special, significant and general importance;
6) affirms expert assessment of seismic risk for the
territories of special, significant and general importance objects;
7) organizes preparedness and training of the population to
withstand strong earthquakes;
8) coordinates and controls the execution of the state
programs in the field of seismic risk;
9) participates in operative vulnerability assessment of
buildings and structures with the aim of seismic risk reduction in the zones of
high seismic hazard;
10) in due course grants the licenses for works on seismic
11) fulfills other competencies established by the present
9. Competencies of local authorities in the field of seismic protection
"Law on local authorities" of the
authorities in the field of seismic protection:
1) organize works in the field of seismic risk reduction in
the territory of community;
2) provide works on preparation of the population to strong
earthquake in the territory of community;
3) support executing of the state programs in the field of
seismic protection in the territory of community;
4) realize other competencies, established by the
legislation of the
Article 10. Spheres - subject
to licensing in the field of seismic protection.
In the field of seismic protection works on seismic zoning
are subject to licensing. The licenses specified are issued only to legal
entities, for the period up to three years.
For receiving the license the State Tax in the statutory
size and course is raised.
Article 11. Seismic hazard assessment
Seismic hazard assessment elements are the primary seismic
hazard assessment and the secondary seismic hazard assessment.
The primary seismic hazard assessment includes long-term and
current assessment of seismic hazard.
The secondary seismic hazard assessment includes assessment
of natural and technogene phenomena caused as a consequence of earthquake.
Article 12. Long-term seismic hazard
Long-term seismic hazard assessment is the prediction of
place and intensity of maximal possible shocks on the Earth surface.
As a result of Long-term seismic hazard assessment, in due
course, various scale maps of seismic
zoning are compiled,
approved as normative document by a plenipotentiary body.
The maps of seismic
zoning are a basis for designing of seismic resistance construction standards,
land use, elaborating of the population settlement
schemes of the
The maps of seismic zoning
the obligatory order are taken into account at building up the cities and
settlements, and designing the objects of special, significant and general
13. Current seismic hazard
Current seismic hazard assessment is the prediction with the
defined probability of place, magnitude and time of possible strong earthquake.
For assessment of current seismic hazard in the territory of
The network consists of national and international
observation stations, which are included in a world global network. At seismic
stations are directly implemented round-the-clock multiparameter observations
and the received results are transmitted to the data acquisition center of
plenipotentiary body, where they are collected in unified databank. After the
expert analysis, information, in order, established by a plenipotentiary body,
is reported to the President of the
The plenipotentiary body establishes the order of creation
of a network, executing of observations, data acquisition and transmission.
For ensuring the reliability of the information about the
natural phenomena and in order to prevent distortion of observations around
observation stations conservation zones are created.
Article 14. Assessment of seismic risk
Assessment of seismic risk is the prediction of human,
material and other possible losses caused by strong earthquake.
As a result of seismic risk assessment, in the order,
established by a plenipotentiary body, various scale maps of seismic risk,
included in basis of economic development programs are compiled and approved.
Article 15. Basic tasks of seismic risk
Basic tasks of seismic risk reduction are:
1) reduction of territories vulnerability;
2) increase of knowledge and preparedness
3) preparation of government bodies and local authorities to
the management of seismic risk;
4) creation of population early warning system;
5) medical preparedness;
6) development of task forces;
7) creation of insurance system;
8) rehabilitation of population and recovering of a zone
suffered from the strong earthquake;
Seismic risk reduction is realized according to the complex
seismic risk reduction state programs.
Article 16. Basic principles of
territories vulnerability reduction
Basic principles of territories vulnerability reduction are:
1) seismic zoning of
2) assessment of seismic risk of settlements, objects of the
special, significant and general significance;
3) strengthening of existing constructions;
4) increase of seismic resistance of objects of special,
significant and general importance and lifelines;
5) presence of rules and standards of seismic resistant
6) accomplishment of the state control on buildings and
structures design, measures and requirements on vulnerability reduction during
construction and exploitation;
7) prediction of secondary hazard.
Article 17. Role of the population in the
system of seismic protection
The raise of knowledge and preparedness
population is provided by means of state training system.
The state training system includes the following subsystems:
1) direct training of various strata of the population,
beginning from high schools (instructors, teachers, tutors, doctors etc.):
2) educational programs, methodical manuals, relevant
3) TV and radio programs, publications in mass media;
4) social - psychological preparedness;
The state training system provides the reliability and
availability of the given information.
Article 18. Preparation of government
bodies and local authorities to the management of seismic risk
The purpose of preparation of government bodies and local
authorities is the creation of a unified seismic risk control system for
effective utilization of capabilities and assets of the state.
The preparation for seismic risk management should include
the following periods: before earthquake (long-term preventive measures), during
earthquake (task force), after earthquake (rendering aid, recovering works,
rehabilitation of population).
The preparation of government bodies and local authorities
includes elaboration of programs on regional and local seismic risk reduction,
as well as mutual aid, organization of staff training.
Article 19. Order of the population
warning about seismic situation at strong earthquake or its threat.
The official warning of the population about strong
earthquake or its threat and as well as about a general seismic situation in the
Article 20. Methods of early warning and
Methods of early warning and notification are non-prompt
notification, through government bodies, and immediate, automatic notifications
by means of a seismic alarm acoustic signal.
In the basis of the non-prompt early warning and
notification lays the assessment of current seismic hazard by a plenipotentiary
body, which is accompanied by accomplishment of the stipulated measures, in
order established by the government of the
The immediate early warning and notification
is transfer of a signal about the destructive seismic wave propagating
from earthquake source to a settlement, via technical automatic system.
Article 21. Task force system.
Task force system in the field of seismic protection
includes the program of actions and necessary means and is directed on rendering
prompt and efficient aid to the population with the purpose of ensuring the
minimum human and material losses.
The program of actions, in due order, is approved by the
government of the
In areas suffered from earthquake task force (hereinafter
1) search and rescue works;
2) rendering of the first medical aid by rescuers and
population to the population, suffered from earthquake;
3) rendering of medical aid by the system of public health
4) examination of psychological state of the people and
organization of explanatory works with the population;
5) recovery of communication and other subsystems of
6) organization of an information service;
7) organization of material-technical support;
8) ensuring of the public order;
9) neutralization of damaged buildings;
10) assessment of preliminary damage
buildings and structures, and consequences in
the earthquake zone;
11) installation of a dense network of seismic observation
stations, seismogeological and macroseismic research in the earthquake zone;
12) other works on liquidation of strong earthquake
By the decision of the prime minister of the Republic of
Armenia, the task forces participate in the works on earthquake consequences
liquidation, occurred abroad the Republic of Armenia.
22. Medical preparedness
Medical preparedness is based on the forecast of possible
sanitary losses at earthquake.
Medical preparedness supposes:
1) preparation of the specialized medical establishments;
2) preparation of medical and not medical experts, with the
purpose of rendering the first medical aid;
3) planning of medical establishments arrangement, depending
on the location of high seismic risk zones;
4) accomplishment of mutual actions between medical services
and government bodies and local authorities.
Article 23. Principles of recovery
The stage of recovery of a zone suffered from strong
earthquake is the intermediate between the stages of an emergency seismic
situation and reconstruction. The duration and the strategy of recovery stage
defines the government of the
The accomplishment of recovery works is based on the
1) planning of possible amount of probable recovery works
before the catastrophe and their adjustment
after the catastrophe;
2) ensuring of cooperation between government bodies and
local authorities, non-governmental organizations, society for the solution of
3) creation of the conditions for population active
participation in recovery works in the disaster zone;
4) creation of the conditions for attracting
an international investments to the disaster zone.
Article 24. Essence of recovery works
Recovery works suppose:
1) revision of existing seismic hazard assessment maps and
compilation of new maps (including seismic microzoning maps);
2) presence of recovery program for settlements in
earthquake zone and general layout;
3) elaboration of seismic resistant construction strategy in
4) assessment of technical state of preserved buildings and
structures, granting of the certificate for their exploitation;
5) demolition of high emergency and destroyed structures and
clearing of the site;
6) construction of new settlements, residential areas,
7) recovering of objects of public health services, culture,
common, industry, education and science, lifelines, religious
8) solution of environment protection tasks.
Article 25. Aid for the population and
The purpose of aid rendering to the population and its
rehabilitation is the reduction of material and psychological losses of the
state after an earthquake.
Rendering of aid to the population and its rehabilitation is
a multi-stage one: operative (first few days), short-term (first month),
mid-term (first year) and long-term (more than one year).
Rendering of aid to the population and its rehabilitation
are based on the following principles:
1) preliminary planning of works amount on rendering aid and
rehabilitation before the catastrophe and their adjustment right after the
2) active participation of government bodies and local
authorities and society.
Article 26. The order of earthquake
insurance in the
The insurance of life, health and asset of the citizens of
the Republic of Armenia, as well as assets of governmental management bodies and
local authorities, legal entities from earthquake is realized in order
established by the law "About insurance" of the Republic of Armenia.
Article 27. The responsibility for
offences in the field of seismic protection
The offences committed in the field of seismic protection
arouse the responsibility according to the order established by the legislation
Article 28. Entry into force of the law
The present law comes into force from the moment of its
President of the